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Erschienen in: Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 1/2019

12.04.2019 | leitlinien für die praxis

Lebensstil: körperliche Aktivität und Training in der Prävention und Therapie des Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus (Update 2019)

verfasst von: Claudia Francesconi, Josef Niebauer, Paul Haber, Raimund Weitgasser, Christian Lackinger

Erschienen in: Wiener klinische Wochenschrift | Sonderheft 1/2019

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Zusammenfassung

Lebensstil, insbesondere regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil in der Prävention und Therapie des Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus und sollte fester Bestandteil jeglicher Betreuung von Patienten sein. Es besteht breiter Konsens, dass eine effiziente Diabetes-Prävention und Therapie in den meisten Fällen auch von einer Modifikation des Lebensstils begleitet sein muss.
Ziele der Förderung der körperlichen Aktivität sind zunächst das Training des Herz-Kreislaufsystems, Kräftigung der Muskulatur, Steigerung des Energieverbrauchs und die Reduktion von Inaktivität. Für einen substanziellen gesundheitlichen Nutzen sind wöchentlich mindestens 150 min aerobe körperliche Aktivität mit mittlerer oder höherer Intensität und zusätzlich muskelkräftigende Bewegungen erforderlich.
Der positive Effekt von Bewegung steht in direktem Verhältnis zum Grad der erreichten kardiorespiratorischen Fitness, der erreicht wird. und hält nur so lange an, wie diese aufrechterhalten werden kann. Der Effekt von Bewegung ist alters- und geschlechtsunabhängig und reproduzierbar. Körperliches Training im Speziellen hat die Potenz nicht nur positiven Einfluss auf die Glykämie durch Verbesserung der Insulinresistenz und funktionelle Verbesserung der Insulinsekretion zu nehmen, sondern ist auch in der Lage, das kardiovaskuläre Risiko zu senken.
Inaktivität per se gilt unabhängig vom Konstrukt der körperlichen Aktivität als Risikofaktor. Insbesondere langandauernde sitzende Tätigkeit soll vermieden werden.
Angeleitete Bewegungsprogramme sind bestens geeignet, um ein ausreichendes wöchentliches Ausmaß an gesundheitsfördernder körperlicher Aktivität zu erreichen. Großes Potential liegt in standardisierten, regionalen Bewegungsangeboten, jedoch gibt es aktuell noch viele Barrieren in der Verordnung von körperlicher Aktivität. Um dieser Herausforderung gerecht zu werden, fordert die Österreichische Diabetes Gesellschaft die Position des Bewegungsberaters als fixen Bestandteil eines multidisziplinären Behandlungsansatzes.
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Metadaten
Titel
Lebensstil: körperliche Aktivität und Training in der Prävention und Therapie des Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus (Update 2019)
verfasst von
Claudia Francesconi
Josef Niebauer
Paul Haber
Raimund Weitgasser
Christian Lackinger
Publikationsdatum
12.04.2019
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift / Ausgabe Sonderheft 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0043-5325
Elektronische ISSN: 1613-7671
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-019-1457-x