Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 1/2019

12.04.2019 | leitlinien für die praxis

Insulintherapie bei Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus (Update 2019)

verfasst von: Monika Lechleitner, Martin Clodi, Heidemarie Abrahamian, Helmut Brath, Johanna Brix, Heinz Drexel, Peter Fasching, Bernhard Föger, Claudia Francesconi, Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer, Jürgen Harreiter, Sabine E. Hofer, Friedrich Hoppichler, Joakim Huber, Susanne Kaser, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Bernhard Ludvik, Anton Luger, Julia K. Mader, Bernhard Paulweber, Thomas Pieber, Rudolf Prager, Birgit Rami-Merhar, Michael Resl, Michaela Riedl, Michael Roden, Christoph H. Saely, Christian Schelkshorn, Guntram Schernthaner, Harald Sourij, Lars Stechemesser, Harald Stingl, Hermann Toplak, Thomas C. Wascher, Raimund Weitgasser, Yvonne Winhofer-Stöckl, Sandra Zlamal-Fortunat

Erschienen in: Wiener klinische Wochenschrift | Sonderheft 1/2019

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Leitlinie nimmt Bezug auf die Indikation und praktische Umsetzung der Insulintherapie bei Typ 2 Diabetes, insbesondere auch im Hinblick auf die unterschiedlichen Formen der Insulintherapie.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat American Diabetes Association. Approaches to glycemic treatment: standard of medical care in diabetes 2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S73–S85. CrossRef American Diabetes Association. Approaches to glycemic treatment: standard of medical care in diabetes 2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S73–S85. CrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Davies MJ, D’Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN, Mathieu C, Mingrone G, Rossing P, Tsapas A, Wexler DJJB, Buse JB. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia. 2018;61:2461–98 CrossRef Davies MJ, D’Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN, Mathieu C, Mingrone G, Rossing P, Tsapas A, Wexler DJJB, Buse JB. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia. 2018;61:2461–98 CrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Group). Intensive blood glucose control with sulfonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837–52. CrossRef UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Group). Intensive blood glucose control with sulfonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837–52. CrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel A, Matthews DR, Neil AW. 10-year follow up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1577–89. CrossRef Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel A, Matthews DR, Neil AW. 10-year follow up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1577–89. CrossRef
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Agrawal L, Azad N, Bahn GD, Ge L, Reaven PD, Hayward RA, Reda DJ, Emanuele NV, VADT Study Group.. Long-term follow-up of intensive glycaemic control on renal outcomes in the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trail (VADT). Diabetologia. 2018;61:295–9. CrossRef Agrawal L, Azad N, Bahn GD, Ge L, Reaven PD, Hayward RA, Reda DJ, Emanuele NV, VADT Study Group.. Long-term follow-up of intensive glycaemic control on renal outcomes in the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trail (VADT). Diabetologia. 2018;61:295–9. CrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72. CrossRef ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72. CrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545–59. CrossRef The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545–59. CrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Pieber TR, Marso SP, McGuire DK, et al. DEVOTE 3: temporal relationships between severe hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Diabetologia. 2018;61:58–65. CrossRef Pieber TR, Marso SP, McGuire DK, et al. DEVOTE 3: temporal relationships between severe hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Diabetologia. 2018;61:58–65. CrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat American Diabetes Association. Glycemic targets: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S55–S64. CrossRef American Diabetes Association. Glycemic targets: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S55–S64. CrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, Peters AL, Tsapas A, Wender R, Matthews DR. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach. Update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2015;58:429–42. CrossRef Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, Peters AL, Tsapas A, Wender R, Matthews DR. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach. Update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2015;58:429–42. CrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Ismail-Beigi F, Moghissi E, Tikin M, Hirsch IB, Inzucchi SE, Genuth S. Individualizing glycemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications of recent clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:554–9. CrossRef Ismail-Beigi F, Moghissi E, Tikin M, Hirsch IB, Inzucchi SE, Genuth S. Individualizing glycemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications of recent clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:554–9. CrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Poon K, King AB. Glargine and detemir: safety and efficacy profiles of the long-acting basal insulin analogues. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2010;2:213–23. PubMedPubMedCentral Poon K, King AB. Glargine and detemir: safety and efficacy profiles of the long-acting basal insulin analogues. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2010;2:213–23. PubMedPubMedCentral
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Monami M, Marchionni N, Mannucci E. Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;81:184–9. CrossRef Monami M, Marchionni N, Mannucci E. Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;81:184–9. CrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Woo VC. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin deglutec and glargine 300 U/mL in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther. 2017;39:S12–S33. CrossRef Woo VC. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin deglutec and glargine 300 U/mL in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther. 2017;39:S12–S33. CrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Blair HA, Keating GM. Insulin Glargine 300 U/mL: a review in diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2016;76:363–74. CrossRef Blair HA, Keating GM. Insulin Glargine 300 U/mL: a review in diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2016;76:363–74. CrossRef
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Robinson JD, Neumiller JJ, Campbell RK. Can a new ultra-long-acting insulin analogue improve patient care? Investigating the potential role of insulin degludec? Drugs. 2012;72:2319–25. CrossRef Robinson JD, Neumiller JJ, Campbell RK. Can a new ultra-long-acting insulin analogue improve patient care? Investigating the potential role of insulin degludec? Drugs. 2012;72:2319–25. CrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Lamos EM, Younk LM, Davis STN. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2016;12:389–400. PubMedPubMedCentral Lamos EM, Younk LM, Davis STN. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2016;12:389–400. PubMedPubMedCentral
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Ritzel R, Roussel R, Giaccari A, Vora J, Brulle-Wohlhueter C, Yki-Järvinen H. Better glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with insulin glargine 300 U/mL vs glargine 100 U/mL: 1 years patient-level meta-analysis of the EDITION clinical studies in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:541–8. CrossRef Ritzel R, Roussel R, Giaccari A, Vora J, Brulle-Wohlhueter C, Yki-Järvinen H. Better glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with insulin glargine 300 U/mL vs glargine 100 U/mL: 1 years patient-level meta-analysis of the EDITION clinical studies in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:541–8. CrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Rodacki M, Carvalho RM, Zajdenverg L. The potential effect of ultra-long insulin degludec on glycaemic variability. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;133:92–103. CrossRef Rodacki M, Carvalho RM, Zajdenverg L. The potential effect of ultra-long insulin degludec on glycaemic variability. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;133:92–103. CrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Ritzel R, Roussel R, Bolli GB, et al. Patient-level meta-analysis of the EDITION 1,2 and 3 studies: glycemic control and hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17:859–67. CrossRef Ritzel R, Roussel R, Bolli GB, et al. Patient-level meta-analysis of the EDITION 1,2 and 3 studies: glycemic control and hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17:859–67. CrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Heller S, Buse J, Fisher M, et al. Insulin deglutec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 1 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 1): a phase 3, randomized, open-label, treat-to-target non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2012;379:1489–97. CrossRef Heller S, Buse J, Fisher M, et al. Insulin deglutec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 1 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 1): a phase 3, randomized, open-label, treat-to-target non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2012;379:1489–97. CrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Garber AJ, King AB, Del Prato St, et al. Insulin degludec, an ultra-long acting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 2 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 2): a phase3, randomised, open label, treat-to target non inferiority trial. Lancet. 2012;379:1498–507. CrossRef Garber AJ, King AB, Del Prato St, et al. Insulin degludec, an ultra-long acting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 2 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 2): a phase3, randomised, open label, treat-to target non inferiority trial. Lancet. 2012;379:1498–507. CrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Marso SP, McGuire DK, Zinman B, Poulter NR, Emerson SS, Pieber TR, Pratley RE, Haahr PM, Lange M, Brown-Frandsen K, Moses A, Skibsted S, Kvist K, Buse JB, DEVOTE Study Group.. Efficacy and safety of Degludec versus Glargine in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:723–32. CrossRef Marso SP, McGuire DK, Zinman B, Poulter NR, Emerson SS, Pieber TR, Pratley RE, Haahr PM, Lange M, Brown-Frandsen K, Moses A, Skibsted S, Kvist K, Buse JB, DEVOTE Study Group.. Efficacy and safety of Degludec versus Glargine in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:723–32. CrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Zinman B, Marso SP, Poulter NR, et al. Day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability in DEVOTE: associations with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes (DEVOTE 2). Diabetologia. 2018;61:48–57. CrossRef Zinman B, Marso SP, Poulter NR, et al. Day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability in DEVOTE: associations with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes (DEVOTE 2). Diabetologia. 2018;61:48–57. CrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Herman WH, Buse JB, Arakaki RF, Dungan KM, Jiang HH, Jacobson JG, Fahrbach JL. Concomitant oral antihyperglycemic agent use and associated outcomes after initiation of insulin therapy. Endocr Pract. 2011;17:563–7. CrossRef Herman WH, Buse JB, Arakaki RF, Dungan KM, Jiang HH, Jacobson JG, Fahrbach JL. Concomitant oral antihyperglycemic agent use and associated outcomes after initiation of insulin therapy. Endocr Pract. 2011;17:563–7. CrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Donner T, Munoz M. Update on insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1405–13. CrossRef Donner T, Munoz M. Update on insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1405–13. CrossRef
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Hemmingsen B, Christensen LL, Wetterslev J, Vaag A, Gluud C, Lund SS, Almdal T. Comparison of metformin and insulin versus insulin alone for type 2 diabetes: systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. BMJ. 2012;344:e1771. CrossRef Hemmingsen B, Christensen LL, Wetterslev J, Vaag A, Gluud C, Lund SS, Almdal T. Comparison of metformin and insulin versus insulin alone for type 2 diabetes: systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. BMJ. 2012;344:e1771. CrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR. Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2014;311:2288–96. CrossRef Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR. Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2014;311:2288–96. CrossRef
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Wilding JP, Woo V, Rohwedder K, Sugg J, Parikh S, Dapagliflozin 006 Study Group.. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving high doses of insulin: efficacy and safety over 2 years. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16:124–36. CrossRef Wilding JP, Woo V, Rohwedder K, Sugg J, Parikh S, Dapagliflozin 006 Study Group.. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving high doses of insulin: efficacy and safety over 2 years. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16:124–36. CrossRef
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Rosenstock J, Jelaska A, Zeller C, Kim G, Broedl UC, Woerle HJ, EMPA-REG BASALTM trial investigators. Impact of empagliflozin added on to basal insulin in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin: a 78-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17:936–48. CrossRef Rosenstock J, Jelaska A, Zeller C, Kim G, Broedl UC, Woerle HJ, EMPA-REG BASALTM trial investigators. Impact of empagliflozin added on to basal insulin in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin: a 78-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17:936–48. CrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, et al. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcome and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2117–28. CrossRef Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, et al. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcome and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2117–28. CrossRef
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Scheen AJ. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2015;75:33–59. CrossRef Scheen AJ. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2015;75:33–59. CrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Gautier JF, Monguillon P, Verier-Mine O, Valensi P, Fiquet B, Dejager S, Charbonnel B. Which oral antidiabetic drug to combine with metformin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when initiating basal insulin? A randomized controlled trial of DPP-4 inhibitors versus insulin secretagogues. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016;116:26–32. CrossRef Gautier JF, Monguillon P, Verier-Mine O, Valensi P, Fiquet B, Dejager S, Charbonnel B. Which oral antidiabetic drug to combine with metformin to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when initiating basal insulin? A randomized controlled trial of DPP-4 inhibitors versus insulin secretagogues. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016;116:26–32. CrossRef
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Rhinehart AS. Adding GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy to basal insulin for postprandial glucose control. Clin Diabetes. 2015;33:73–5. CrossRef Rhinehart AS. Adding GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy to basal insulin for postprandial glucose control. Clin Diabetes. 2015;33:73–5. CrossRef
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Digenio A, Karve S, Candrilli SD, Dalal M. Prandial insulin versus glucagon-like peptide-1 added to basal insulin: comparative effectiveness in the community practice setting. Postgrad Med. 2014;126:49–59. CrossRef Digenio A, Karve S, Candrilli SD, Dalal M. Prandial insulin versus glucagon-like peptide-1 added to basal insulin: comparative effectiveness in the community practice setting. Postgrad Med. 2014;126:49–59. CrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat LEADER Trial Investigators, Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:311–22. CrossRef LEADER Trial Investigators, Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:311–22. CrossRef
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Downie M, Kilou G, Wong J. Initiantion and intensification strategies in type 2 diabetes management: a comparison of basal plus and premix regimens. Diabetes Ther. 2016;7:641–57. CrossRef Downie M, Kilou G, Wong J. Initiantion and intensification strategies in type 2 diabetes management: a comparison of basal plus and premix regimens. Diabetes Ther. 2016;7:641–57. CrossRef
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Meece J. Basal insulin intensification in patients with type 2 diabetes: a review. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9:877–90 CrossRef Meece J. Basal insulin intensification in patients with type 2 diabetes: a review. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9:877–90 CrossRef
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Fulcher GR, Christiansen JS, Bantwal G, Polaszewska-Muszynska M, Mersebach H, Andersen TH, Niskanen LK, BOOST: Intensity Premix I Investigators. Comparison of insulin degludec/insulin aspart and biphasic insulin aspart 30 in uncontrolled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a phase 3a, randomized, treat-to-target trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:2084–90. CrossRef Fulcher GR, Christiansen JS, Bantwal G, Polaszewska-Muszynska M, Mersebach H, Andersen TH, Niskanen LK, BOOST: Intensity Premix I Investigators. Comparison of insulin degludec/insulin aspart and biphasic insulin aspart 30 in uncontrolled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a phase 3a, randomized, treat-to-target trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:2084–90. CrossRef
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Siegmund T, Pfohl M, Forst T, et al. Titration of basal insulin or immediate addition of rapid acting insulin in patients not at target using basal insulin supported oral antidiabetic treatment—a prospective observational study in 2202 patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017;11:51–7. CrossRef Siegmund T, Pfohl M, Forst T, et al. Titration of basal insulin or immediate addition of rapid acting insulin in patients not at target using basal insulin supported oral antidiabetic treatment—a prospective observational study in 2202 patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017;11:51–7. CrossRef
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Pfeiffer KM, Basse A, Lee XY, Waldman LT. Diabetes management and healthcare resource use when intensifying from basal insulin to basal-bolus: a survey of type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9:1931–44. CrossRef Pfeiffer KM, Basse A, Lee XY, Waldman LT. Diabetes management and healthcare resource use when intensifying from basal insulin to basal-bolus: a survey of type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9:1931–44. CrossRef
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Chlup R, Runzis S, Castaneda J, Lee SW, Nguyen X, Cohen O. Complex assessment of metabolic effectiveness of insulin pump therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes beyond HbA1c reduction. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2018;20:153–9. CrossRef Chlup R, Runzis S, Castaneda J, Lee SW, Nguyen X, Cohen O. Complex assessment of metabolic effectiveness of insulin pump therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes beyond HbA1c reduction. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2018;20:153–9. CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Insulintherapie bei Typ 2 Diabetes mellitus (Update 2019)
verfasst von
Monika Lechleitner
Martin Clodi
Heidemarie Abrahamian
Helmut Brath
Johanna Brix
Heinz Drexel
Peter Fasching
Bernhard Föger
Claudia Francesconi
Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer
Jürgen Harreiter
Sabine E. Hofer
Friedrich Hoppichler
Joakim Huber
Susanne Kaser
Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
Bernhard Ludvik
Anton Luger
Julia K. Mader
Bernhard Paulweber
Thomas Pieber
Rudolf Prager
Birgit Rami-Merhar
Michael Resl
Michaela Riedl
Michael Roden
Christoph H. Saely
Christian Schelkshorn
Guntram Schernthaner
Harald Sourij
Lars Stechemesser
Harald Stingl
Hermann Toplak
Thomas C. Wascher
Raimund Weitgasser
Yvonne Winhofer-Stöckl
Sandra Zlamal-Fortunat
Publikationsdatum
12.04.2019
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift / Ausgabe Sonderheft 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0043-5325
Elektronische ISSN: 1613-7671
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-019-1492-7