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Significant progress in prenatal care has decreased the incidence of rhesus incompatibility, which may result in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). This case report describes an unusual presentation of HDFN in a preterm infant delivered by caesarean section with isolated massive abdominal fluid collection as the leading clinical sign in addition to severe anemia. The immediate drainage of ascites provided transient clinical stabilization with improved pulmonary function in the delivery suite. After admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), HDFN treatment was initiated. This case report shows the importance of adequately trained staff including neonatologists, pediatricians and NICU nurses in the delivery suite to provide neonatal intensive care for HDFN.