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06.01.2021 | original article Open Access

Traumatic open globe injury—epidemiology, risk factors and visual outcome at the University Hospital Aachen

Spektrum der Augenheilkunde
Yassamin Djalali-Talab, MD Babac Mazinani, MD, FEBO Yassin Djalali-Talab
Wichtige Hinweise

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Ocular trauma is still a major cause leading to enucleation. This study aims to analyze the visual outcome, epidemiology and risk factors of open globe injury (OGI) at the University Hospital Aachen, Germany.

Material and methods

A retrospective analysis of patient records involving traumatic OGI treated surgically between 2005 and 2015 was conducted. Age, gender, cause of accident, ocular trauma score, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation and after treatment as well as location of injury were evaluated.


Of 2272 eyes with trauma, 102 patients with OGI were identified, of which 65% were male and 35% were female. Women were significantly older than men (p < 0.001). The most common cause of injury was domestic syncopal episodes (47%). Work-related injuries occurred exclusively in men in 8.8%. A total of 16% had no light perception (NLP) at presentation, 69% of which improved post intervention to hand movement or better. Endophthalmitis was observed in 4% of all cases. Enucleation was needed mostly due to rupture. Location of OGI, pseudophakia and initial BCVA are risk factors for poor final BCVA. Patients’ BCVA did not improve further after three surgeries.


Traumatic OGI still poses a challenge in terms of treatment planning and prognostic outcome. A rise in elderly patients with multimorbidity represents a secondary obstacle to treatment. Patients with initial NLP can be treated with moderate success. Nevertheless, risk factors and ocular trauma score are unable to provide definitive therapy decisions. OGI should be assessed case by case, taking risk factors for OGI into account. Treating physicians should consider the ethical and economic reasons with regard to whether a high number of surgeries with possible comorbidities is justified.

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