Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder, characterized by predominantly benign tumors in potentially all organ systems. System involvement, severity of clinical symptoms and the response to treatment are age-dependent and heterogeneous. Consequently, the disorder is still not recognized in a considerable number of patients. The diagnostic criteria and the guidelines for surveillance and management of patients with TSC were revised, and the establishment of specialized TSC-centers was strongly recommended during an International Consensus Conference in 2012. TOSCA (TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness), an international patient registry, was started to allow new insights into the causes of different courses. Finally, there are—since the approval of the mTOR inhibitor Everolimus—promising new therapeutic approaches.
This review focuses on the various TSC related symptoms occurring at different ages, the novel recommendations for diagnosis and treatment as well as the need for multidisciplinary follow-up.