The current era of liver surgery is highlighted by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative efforts to increase resectability, and overall improved survival for patients with both primary and metastatic lesions. The complexity of liver anatomy combined with the presence of several major vascular structures delayed the widespread application of minimally invasive surgical techniques to liver surgery compared to other intra-abdominal organs. However, our experience with minimally invasive surgery has greatly expanded over the past 20 years. Modern surgical techniques, emerging technologies, and novel chemotherapeutic agents have led to a significant increase in minimally invasive liver surgery worldwide. This review will focus on the modern technical advancements that make minimally invasive liver surgery successful and what we can expect in the future.