Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a rare hematological disorder with an autoimmune-mediated, often dramatic reduction of platelets in peripheral blood. Thrombocytopenia results from a reduced life span of thrombocytes and an additionally decreased production in bone marrow. For decades, the first-line therapy for ITP has been corticosteroids. As significant thrombocytopenic bleedings occur, the use of additional medication may be needed. Recent updates on therapy guidelines recommend the shortest possible use of corticosteroids. Thrombopoietin-receptor agonists are often used second line. Today splenectomy, which was previously recommended after unsuccessful first-line therapy, is usually considered much later. Patients who do not respond even after multiple lines of therapy continue to pose a major challenge. New drugs for ITP treatment are now available after steroid failure and will be discussed. This review gives a short summary on actual therapy guidelines taking into account newly available therapy options. In addition, comparisons between selected published data and experience at our department are made.