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Erschienen in: European Surgery 1/2023

Open Access 29.09.2022 | original article

Impact of previous abdominal surgery on the outcome of fundoplication for medically refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease in children and young adults

verfasst von: Franziska Christiane Steffens, Dr. med. Marcus Dahlheim, Prof. Dr. med. Patrick Günther, Prof. Dr. med. Arianeb Mehrabi, PD Dr. med. Raphael N. Vuille-Dit-Bille, Dr. med. Ulrich Klaus Fetzner, Prof. Dr. med. Berthold Gerdes, PD Dr. med. Giovanni Frongia

Erschienen in: European Surgery | Ausgabe 1/2023

Summary

Importance

Fundoplication (FP) is a well-established surgical treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to medical therapy in children and young adults. During FP, previous abdominal surgery (PAS) can impair the patient’s outcome by causing technical difficulties and increasing intra- and postoperative complication rates.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PAS on the short- and long-term outcome following FP for refractory GERD in a cohort of patients aged < 23 years.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients undergoing a total of 201 FP procedures performed at our university center for pediatric surgery from February 1999 to October 2019. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative variables were recorded and their impact on the rate of intraoperative complications and revision FP (reFP) was analyzed.

Results

A total of 201 FP procedures were performed on 182 patients: 119 (59.2%) as Thal-FP (180° anterior wrap) and 82 (40.8%) as Nissen-FP (360°circular wrap; 67.2% laparoscopic, 32.8% open, 8.9% conversion). The presence of PAS (95 cases, 47.3%) was associated with significantly longer operative times for FP (153.4 ± 53.7 vs.126.1 ± 56.4 min, p = 0.001) and significantly longer hospital stays (10.0 ± 7.0 vs. 7.0 ± 4.0 days, p < 0.001), while the rates of intraoperative surgical complications (1.1% vs. 1.9%, p = 1.000) and the rate re-FP in the long term (8.4% vs. 15.1%, p = 0.19) during a follow-up period of 53.4 ± 44.5 months were comparable to the group without PAS.

Conclusion

In cases of PAS in children and young adults, FP for refractory GERD might necessitate longer operative times and longer hospital stays but can be performed with surgery-related short- and long-term complication rates comparable to cases without PAS.
Hinweise

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Introduction

Fundoplication (FP) is the antireflux surgery treatment of choice for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to medical therapy in children and young adults (Figs. 1, 2, and 3). It leads to effective symptom control, reduction of GERD medication, and improved postoperative quality of life for patients [17]. Previous abdominal surgery (PAS) can make FP technically more challenging for the surgeon, mostly due to intrabdominal adhesions that lead to suboptimal intraoperative line of sight [810]. The impact of PAS on these patients is debated. It was previously reported that PAS can be associated with prolonged operative times, increased conversion and complications rates [11, 12], and poorer postoperative outcome [1114]. However, others report comparable morbidity and functional results with and without PAS [8, 1517]. The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of PAS on FP-related short- and long-term outcome in a cohort of patients < 23 years of age following FP for medically refractory GERD.

Material and methods

Study population and data acquisition

The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee (S-272-2019 and S-638/2011). We retrospectively analyzed patients (age < 23 years) following FP for medically refractory GERD at our university center for pediatric surgery from February 1999 to October 2019. Study inclusion criteria were follow-up longer than 6 months after FP and the availability of complete study data. Study exclusion criteria were patients with previous solid-organ transplantations.
Study data were retrieved from the electronic patients’ charts and included demographic data (gender, age at surgery, weight at surgery, height at surgery), preoperative data (diagnosis, comorbidities, previous abdominal operation), perioperative data (operative time, type of operation [laparoscopic vs. open operation], need for conversion to open surgery, type of FP [Nissen or Thal], occurrence and grade of postoperative surgical complications according to the ‘Clavien–Dindo’ classification [18]) and outcome data (length of hospital stay, length of follow-up, symptoms, need for redo FP). Short-term outcome was defined as the rate of surgical complications within the first 30 postoperative days and the long-term outcome was defined as the rate of Re-FP up to the latest available postoperative data.

Data analysis

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistic Version 25 (IBM Statistics, Armonk, NY, USA) for Windows. All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article. Categorical variables are summarized as frequencies and percentages and were compared using a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and were compared by a two-tailed paired t test. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the impact on patient outcome for each recorded variable. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses.

Results

Overall group

A total of 302 children and young adults underwent FP during the study period. Of these, 128 (38.9%) cases were excluded due to the following criteria: lost to follow-up (n = 64, 19.5%), available data of follow-up less than 6 months (n = 55, 16.7%), incomplete data sets (n = 5, 1.5%), and previous organ transplantation (n = 4, 1.2%). The study group included 182 patients who underwent a total of 201 FP procedures.
Intraoperative complications included bleeding from a stomach vessel (n = 3), which could not be resolved laparoscopically and required a conversion to an open suture in two cases. Postoperative surgical complications leading to a reintervention within the first 30 postoperative days following FP included a laparoscopic release of a tight hiatoplasty suture as a cause of early and persistent postoperative dysphagia (n = 1), relaparotomy for secondary gastric perforation (n = 3) and leakage of a gastrostomy (n = 1), relaparotomy for dislocation of a gastrostomy tube with peritonitis (n = 1), and drainage of an abdominal abscess (n = 1).
In 24 cases (11.9%) a re-FP was necessary for recurrent and medically refractory GERD within the follow-up period of 53.4 ± 44.5 months. During this follow-up period, there was no operation-related mortality, although four neurologically impaired children (2.0%) died due to cardiorespiratory failure unrelated to surgery.

Effect of a previous abdominal surgery

Overall, 95 (47.3%) of the FP procedures were performed after a PAS. The previous operations are described in Table 1. The subgroup analysis results between patients with and without PAS at the time of FP are presented in Table 2.
Table 1
Previous abdominal surgery at time-point of fundoplication (multiple possible)
Previous abdominal surgery
95 (47.3%)
Fundoplication
27 (13.4%)
Gastrostomy
67 (33.3%)
Jejunostomy
5 (2.5%)
Partial intestinal resection
 Necrotizing enterocolitis
 Intestinal perforation
 Intestinal ischemia due to obstructive ileus
 Pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
 Pyloroplasty for delayed gastral emptying
 Other
15 (15.8%)
 3 (1.5%)
 4 (2.0%)
 1 (0.5%)
 2 (1.0%)
 4 (2.0%)
 1 (0.5%)
Abdominal wall closure for gastroschisis or omphalocele
2 (1.0%)
Jejunostomy placement
5 (2.5%)
Ventricular peritoneal shunt
8 (4.0%)
Other
12 (6.0%)
Table 2
Subgroup analysis of patients with previous abdominal surgery (PAS) and without previous abdominal surgery (control) at time of fundoplication
 
PAS
Control
p
Patients
95 (47.3%)
106 (52.7%)
Demographics
Sex (male)
Age (years)
Weight (kg)
Neurological impairment
46 (48.4%)
5.5 ± 5.2
17.7 ± 14.8
68 (71.6%)
59 (55.7%)
6.8 ± 5.2
25.4 ± 17.4
29 (27.4%)
0.325
0.069
0.006
< 0.001
Type of fundoplication
Thal (180° anterior wrap)
34 (35.8%)
85 (80.2%)
< 0.001
Nissen (360° circular wrap)
61 (64.2%)
21 (19.8%)
< 0.001
Surgical access
Laparoscopic
44 (46.3%)
91 (85.8%)
< 0.001
Open surgery
51 (53.7%)
15 (14.2%)
< 0.001
Operative time (min)
153.4 ± 53.7
126.1 ± 56.4
0.001
Intraoperative complicationsa
1 (1.1%)
2 (1.9%)
1.000
Length of stay (days)
10.0 ± 7.0
7.0 ± 4.0
< 0.001
Re-fundoplication rateb
8 (8.4%)
16 (15.1%)
0.193
aSevere intraoperative bleeding leading to conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery in all cases
bWithin a follow-up period of 53.4 ± 44.5 months
A PAS at the time of FP was associated with an odds ratio of 1.808 (95% CI 0.161–20.260, p = 0.631) for intraoperative complications and an odds ratio of 1.933 (95% CI 0.787–4.748; p = 0.150) for a redo FP.
Gastrostomy was performed in one third of cases before FP (67/201 = 33.3%). These patients showed comparable surgery times at FP (148.4 ± 47.5 min. vs. 134.3 ± 60.4 min; p = 0.069) and intraoperative complication rates (1/67 = 1.5% vs. 2/134 = 1.5%; p = 1.000). The length of hospital stay was also significantly longer for patients with gastrostomy (10.9 ± 7.7 days vs. 7.2 ± 3.9 days; p < 0.001) than for patients without previous gastrostomy. The need for redo FP was comparable between both groups (6/67 = 9.0% with gastrostomy vs. 18/34 = 53.0% without gastrostomy, p = 0.490) and a gastrostomy at the time of FP was associated with an odds ratio of 0.634 (95% CI 0.239–1.680, p = 0.359) for the need of a redo FP.
Patients with FP as a PAS showed comparable operation times (156.6 ± 54.6 min. vs. 136.2 ± 56.7 min.; p = 0.088) and intraoperative complication rates (1/27 = 3.7% vs. 2/174 = 12%, p = 0.523). The length of hospital stay was significantly longer (6.9 ± 3.0 days vs. 8.6 ± 6.0 days; p = 0.154) compared to patients without previous FP.
Fundoplication as PAS at the time of FP was associated with an odds ratio of 3.308 (95% CI 0.290–37.784, p = 0.336) for intraoperative complications and an odds ratio of 0.553 (95% CI 0.122–2.497; p = 0.553) for the need for redo FP.

Discussion

The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of PAS on the FP-related outcome in a cohort of children and young adults undergoing FP for medically refractory GERD. We showed that PAS was associated with a significantly longer operation time and hospital stay, and, as the rate of intraoperative complications and the rate of redo FP were not significantly different, the presence of PAS did not have a significant influence on the overall outcome of the patients.
This is accordance with the literature regarding the safety of performing FP in children with PAS, such as gastrostomy or ventriculo-peritoneal shunts [15, 36], previous FP [10, 33], or other laparotomies [8, 29].
The clearly extended time of operation is most likely due to adhesions caused by the PAS, which may lead to suboptimal intraoperative line of sight and a technically more demanding operation [11, 12]. According to the literature, in our study PAS was associated with a higher conversion rate during FP (0–11%; [6, 8, 11, 12, 1923]). Although the operation time was longer and the conversion rate was higher in children with PAS compared to children without PAS, both groups showed comparable intraoperative complication rates. These results are almost identical to results in the current literature since the overall intraoperative complication rates are reported as 0.8–14% [11, 12, 1921, 24, 25] and as 0–17% in children with PAS [10, 1417, 22, 26].
The laparoscopic approach for FP is associated with a shorter hospital stay [11, 27, 28]. This possibly explains the longer hospital stay in children with PAS in the present study, as in these patients the open FP rate was significantly higher than for children without PAS. Moreover, the longer hospital stay in children with PAS could also be partly due to the higher rate of neurologically impaired patients in this group, since according to the literature a significant comorbidity might prolong the hospital stay [11].
In present study, the redo FP rate for patients and young adults with PAS was comparable to the rate reported in the literature (0–18%; [8, 10, 2931]). Although the regression analysis showed a tendency for a higher rate of redo FP in children with PAS, this was not statistically significant.
In some studies, the presence of a gastrostomy is mentioned as a major factor for the occurrence of postoperative complications following a pediatric FP [21, 25]. In our analysis, the postoperative complication rate was not influenced by the presence of PAS; however, the length of hospitalization was significantly longer in children with PAS and gastrostomy. In patients with a neurological impairment, gastrostomy was found significantly more frequently in our study, and therefore the presence of such a comorbidity could be a contributory cause to the prolonged hospital stay [11].
The presence of a previous FP as PAS did not impact the complications rate, the operation time, or the need for redo FP in the present study, while the rates of these parameters were comparable to published data [9, 10, 30, 3235].
This study is limited by the single-center analysis, which limits the size of the study population and the retrospective nature of the study, leading to potential bias. A considerably higher number of cases for accurate evaluation might be accomplished through the widespread use of a centralized register. Moreover, a prospective, blind, randomized, two-arm study could avoid this bias and determine the procedure-related impact with more accuracy. However, such a study is probably unfeasible for ethical reasons; therefore, retrospective studies like ours currently represent one possible source of data on which to base recommendations in the clinical setting.

Conclusion

In children and young patients with a previous abdominal surgery, fundoplication can be performed safely for medically refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease. A previous abdominal surgery does not represent a contraindication or a limitation to performing fundoplication on these patients.

Funding

No financial or non-financial benefits have been received or will be received from any party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.

Declarations

Conflict of interest

F.C. Steffens, M. Dahlheim, P. Günther, A. Mehrabi, R. N. Vuille-Dit-Bille, U. K. Fetzner, B. Gerdes, and G. Frongia declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

The conduct of the present study was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty Heidelberg (S-272-2019 and S-638/2011).
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​.

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Metadaten
Titel
Impact of previous abdominal surgery on the outcome of fundoplication for medically refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease in children and young adults
verfasst von
Franziska Christiane Steffens
Dr. med. Marcus Dahlheim
Prof. Dr. med. Patrick Günther
Prof. Dr. med. Arianeb Mehrabi
PD Dr. med. Raphael N. Vuille-Dit-Bille
Dr. med. Ulrich Klaus Fetzner
Prof. Dr. med. Berthold Gerdes
PD Dr. med. Giovanni Frongia
Publikationsdatum
29.09.2022
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
European Surgery / Ausgabe 1/2023
Print ISSN: 1682-8631
Elektronische ISSN: 1682-4016
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10353-022-00775-7

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