Translational research is scientific research that helps to make findings from basic science useful for practical applications in the clinic. The successful use of a drug that interferes with the specific molecular pathophysiology of cancer remains the ultimate vision in cancer medicine. Translational research is a multistep process including the discovery of a cytogenetic/molecular aberration as well as the demonstration of its pathophysiological relevance and its druggability by in vitro experiments and in vivo animal models. Information obtained from preclinical research paves the way for clinical trials in which a drug of interest is developed until its clinical application. Modern pathophysiology-oriented anticancer drugs that have been developed by translational research are available for clinical applications since the beginning of this millennium. By using these drugs higher efficacy and lower toxicity could be achieved as compared with previous treatments. In this article, we will present some of the most prominent examples of this translational approach.