There is increasing evidence for an association between SB and CKD, an emerging public health problem particularly affecting old people. For this reason a systematic literature search was carried out in Embase and PubMed (Jan 2000–Dec 2018) looking for an association between SB and kidney function. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria (7 cross-sectional and 3 longitudinal investigations). A sedentary lifestyle was positively and independently of several confounders related to an impaired kidney function (chronic kidney disease or decrease of glomerular filtration rate), particularly in cross-sectional studies; however, more studies are needed to further establish the current evidence and to explore the exact independent mechanisms of sedentary behavior in relation to kidney function. Due to the inconsistency of the few longitudinal studies, future investigations are required to explore if SB is prospectively associated with a higher risk of developing CKD.