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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of neurodegeneration in the elderly and is clinically characterized by slowly progressing cognitive decline, which most commonly affects episodic memory function. This eventually leads to difficulties in activities of daily living. Biomarker studies show that the underlying pathology of AD begins 20 years before clinical symptoms. This results in the need to define specific targets and preclinical stages in order to address the problems of this disease at an earlier point in time. Genetic studies are indispensable for gaining insight into the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases and can play a major role in the early definition of the individual disease risk. This review provides an overview of the currently known genetic features of AD.