R.-S. Ke, Q.-c. Cai, and Y.-t. Chen contributed equally to the manuscript. Yi Jiang and Li-Zhi Lv proposed ideas and designed the research. Rui-Sheng Ke, Qiu-cheng Cai, and Yong-tai Chen searched and analyzed literature. Yong-tai Chen and Rui-Sheng Ke completed the minor revision. The manuscript was drafted by Rui-Sheng Ke. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Microvascular invasion (MVI) is currently only confirmed by histopathological studies of surgical specimens. Preoperative diagnosis of MVI combined with clinical treatment is still a research problem and direction in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). How to assess the presence of MVI early and give appropriate treatment has become a research hotspot.
This review focuses on recent advances in MVI-related research, including the use of serum markers, tumor tissue markers, and new imaging techniques to predict MVI, as well as the molecular biology mechanisms and therapeutic advances in MVI.
The emergence of MVI may be caused by the interaction of many complex biological processes and various pathogenic factors. We need to try to select several risk factors and establish a systematic evaluation method to solve their respective deficiencies, so as to provide more practical applications for the preoperative prediction of MVI program. Simultaneously, the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative comprehensive treatment strategies for MVI are particularly important.
The presence of MVI is thought to reflect increased capacity for local infiltration and distant metastases and affects the prognosis of HCC patients. To accurately assess MVI early based on some biomarkers prior to surgery, we need to work hard to explore and integrate various treatments to create a personalized treatment plan for MVI.