Optic disc drusen (ODD) are calcified deposits potentially caused by disturbances in axonal metabolism. The clinical course and visual impairment of ODD is usually mild; however, significant ocular morbidity may occur, such as visual field defects and retinal haemorrhages. Optic disc drusen may pose a diagnostic dilemma and differentiating these from other entities that can lead to similar compressive axonal distress is imperative. We present a novel technique for three-dimensional (3D) characterisation of superficial ODD based on 3D volume rendering of optical coherence tomography angiography (3DOCTA) scans.
Material and methods
Optical coherence tomography (Cirrus™ HD-OCT Model 5000 with AngioPlex, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, USA) scans were obtained from the optic nerve head of a healthy 22-year-old female. Consequently, 3D structural OCT data and OCTA were analysed, enabling ODD segmentation and spatial characterization.
Volumetric analysis of superficial ODD showed a maximal drusen horizontal diameter of 223 μm, maximal vertical diameter of 268 μm, surface area of 6617 μm2 and volume measurement of 12,875 μm3. The drusen were characterised by a connected network of multiple drusen islands instead of forming a dense mass. Multiple vascular channels with perforating vessels were found across the drusen.
Three-dimensional volume rendering of OCTA scans provided new insight on the spatio-anatomical features of superficial ODD. The new features herein described, namely multilobulated drusen islands and intradrusen channels, may directly contribute to the pathogenic events leading to transient non-embolic visual loss and small vessel occlusion secondary to ODD.