Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can pose serious complications during pregnancy and neonatal infection. This study aimed to determine the frequency of L. monocytogenes infection, prevalent serotypes, and virulence genes among pregnant women and those experiencing miscarriages in Kerman, Iran. Out of 200 vaginal swabs, 4.5 and 29.5% of specimens were positive for L. monocytogenes infection as identified by culture and molecular methods, respectively. The majority of isolates from positive cultures (89%) of pregnant women resulted in stillbirth, death, and blindness. The most prevalent virulence determinants were inl B, prf A, and act A. The majority of isolates were non-typable. A history of miscarriage and gestational age are known to be significantly associated with the presence of infection. This study emphasizes the importance of initial screening for L. monocytogenes in pregnant women in Iran. Molecular methods may be useful in this process. Increasing the awareness of pregnant women could be effective in reducing pregnancy-related listeriosis.