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06.03.2020 | review | Ausgabe 5-6/2020 Open Access

Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 5-6/2020

New developments in the management of achondroplasia

Zeitschrift:
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift > Ausgabe 5-6/2020
Autoren:
Univ. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Högler, Dr. Leanne M. Ward
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Summary

Achondroplasia is the most common form of disproportionate short stature. A dominantly inherited FGFR3 mutation permanently activates the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and its downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. This inhibits chondrocyte differentiation and puts a break on growth plate function, in addition to causing serious medical complications such as foramen magnum and spinal stenosis and upper airway narrowing. A great deal has been learned about complications and consequences of FGFR3 activation and management guidance is evolving aimed to reduce the increased mortality and morbidity in this condition, particularly deaths from spinal cord compression and sleep apnoea in infants and small children. To date, no drugs are licensed for treatment of achondroplasia. Here, we report on the various substances in the drug development pipeline which target elements in molecular disease mechanism such as FGF (fibroblast growth factor) ligands, FGFR3, MAPK signalling as well as the C‑type natriuretic peptide receptor NPR‑B (natriuretic peptide receptor B).

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