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01.06.2017 | original article | Ausgabe 11-12/2017 Open Access

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 11-12/2017

Impact of gender on tumor stage and survival of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer

A population-based study

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift > Ausgabe 11-12/2017
Badereddin Mohamad Al-Ali, Stephan Madersbacher, Nadine Zielonke, Ingrid Schauer, Prof. Dr. Thomas Waldhoer, Gerald Haidinger



The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of gender on tumor stage, overall and cancer-specific mortality of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in a population-based, nationwide analysis.


All Austrian patients with UTUC diagnosed between 1983 and 2010 were included in this study. Overall mortality was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cancer-specific (UTUC) mortality was estimated by cumulative incidence with mortality due to other causes as a competing risk. The effect of age was adjusted in a descriptive as well as a statistical inferential way.


This study included 2066 patients (men n = 1169, mean age 68.3 ±11.5 years, women n = 897, 72.6 ±10.4 years). Tumor stage distribution was as follows: pT1: men n = 411, women n = 268, pT2: men n = 263, women n = 187, pT3: men n = 382, women n = 328 and pT4: men n = 113, women n = 114. The male:female ratio continuously declined from 1.5 for pT1 tumors to 1.4 for pT2 tumors, 1.2 for pT3 tumors and 1.0 for pT4-tumors. In the entire cohort the 5‑year cumulative overall mortality was 57 % for women versus 50 % for men (p = 0.0002). For pT1 (women 33 %, men 31 %) and pT2 stage tumors (women 45 %, men 45 %) the 5‑year overall mortality was comparable between both sexes. In pT3 (women 68 %, men 62 %) and pT4 (women 95 %, men 87 %) tumors women had a higher overall mortality rate. The 5‑year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of the entire cohort was 12 % for women and 10 % for men (p = 0.067): pT1 women 5 % men 3 %, pT2 women 9 % men 10 %, pT3 women 14 % men 11 % and pT4 women 29 % men 27 %.


In this population-based nationwide analysis, sex differences were notable for UTUC. Women tended to have more advanced tumor stages at diagnosis and a higher overall and cancer-specific mortality in advanced tumor stages.
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