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In 2012 approximately 410,000 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer and about 353,000 lung cancer deaths were registered in the European Union. Although lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, advances in detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of long-term survival. In patients receiving definitive curative treatment for lung cancer guidelines suggest follow-up of patients using clinical and radiological examinations over a certain period of time. However, standards differ and there are no generally accepted follow-up recommendations. Aim of this short review is to summarize the currently available knowledge and guidelines regarding surveillance of patients receiving definitive lung cancer treatment.