Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00729-014-0023-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This article is part of the main topic “dream”
In studies with focus on the phenomenon of dreaming a variety of methodologies have been used. Besides the classical techniques of collecting dreams in dream diaries also a variety of questionnaires and database systems are in use. As an example, we present here the multidimensional dream questionnaire “Dreamland”. With these techniques, and depending on the research question, different aspects of dreaming are assessed and analyzed. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of these techniques hinders objectivity and reproducibility of the results of dream content analysis. In addition, also the diversity of interpretations and theoretical concepts about the origin or the meaning of dreams and dreaming contributes to these limitations. Future research on dream content analysis should be more focused on questions about the combination and integration of these diverse methodological approaches and techniques. Moreover, linguistic approaches offer new possibilities in dream content analysis.