Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) have been associated with financially significant economic burden and increased case fatality rate in adult intensive care units (ICUs). This study was designed to evaluate case fatality rate among patients with NP and VAP in a respiratory ICU.
In 2008–2013, VAP and NP in the ICUs were included in this retrospective single-centre cohort study. Data on demographics, co-morbidities, severity of illness, mechanical ventilation, empirical treatment, length of hospital stay and laboratory findings were recorded in each group, as were case fatality rate during ICU admission and after discharge including short-term (28-day) and long-term (a year) case fatality rate.
A total of 108 patients with VAP (n = 64, median (IQR) age: 70 (61–75) years, 67.2 % were men) or NP (n = 44, median (IQR) age: 68 (62–74) years, 68.2 % were men) were found. Appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was identified only in 45.2 and 42.9 % of patients with VAP and NP, respectively. Overall case fatality rate in VAP and NP (81.3 vs 84.1), ICU case fatality rate (42.2 vs 45.5 %), short-term case fatality rate (15.6 vs 27.3 %) and long-term case fatality rate (23.4 vs 11.4 %) were similar between VAP and NP groups along with occurrence 50 % of case fatality rate cases in the first 2 months and 90 % within the first year of discharge. Multivariate analysis showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (HR: 3.15, 95 % CI: 1.06–9.38; p = 0.039) and presence of septic shock (HR: 3.83, 95 % CI: 1.26–11.60; p = 0.018) were independently associated with lower survival.
In conclusion, our findings in a retrospective cohort of respiratory ICU patients with VAP or NP revealed high ICU, short- and long-term case fatality rates within 1 year of diagnosis, regardless of the diagnosis of NP after 48 h of initial admission or after induction of ventilator support. COPD and presence of septic shock are associated with high fatality rate and our findings speculate that as increasing compliance with infection control programs and close monitoring especially in 2 months of discharge might reduce high-case fatality rate in patients with VAP and NP.