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The benefits of screening programs are highly dependent on risk group definition. This is especially true for lung cancer screening. Results from the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) and the NELSON trial (Dutch/Belgian randomised lung cancer screening trial) demonstrated that lung cancer screening using low-dose CT scans results in reduction of cancer-related mortality. This article gives a short overview on participant selection in the NLST and NELSON trials, and on current evidence for implementation of multivariable risk prediction models.