The new guidelines on hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2018 have refined the treatment cut-offs and therapy decisions in adults. This review highlights important recommendations of the guidelines and also on the situation of hypertension in Austria. The general treatment targets of blood pressure have been lowered to at least 130/80 mmHg for most patients. The definition of hypertension is specified as a repeated systolic blood pressure in the office of ≥140 and or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg. For home blood pressure monitoring, an average value of ≥135/85 mmHg is now defined as hypertension. Ambulatory 24h-blood pressure measurement is recommended for diagnosis of hypertension and to demask lack of nocturnal blood pressure dipping. Whether drug treatment should be initiated immediately or after a delay with lifestyle intervention is focused on the individual high or low cardiovascular risk of the patients and the degree of hypertension. For most patients a combination therapy with single pill is now recommended as initial therapy for hypertension from the start. The salt consumption should be reduced in the majority of patients. The new guidelines have clarified the treatment of hypertension in different comorbidities.