Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 7-8/2015

01.04.2015 | review

Vulvar cancer: a review for dermatologists

verfasst von: MD Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, MD Prof Georgi Tchernev, MD Elena Castelli, MD Elisabetta Orlando, MBBS, DV & D Shyam B. Verma, MD Markus Grebe, MD Prof Uwe Wollina

Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Ausgabe 7-8/2015

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Summary

Vulvar malignancies are important tumors of the female reproductive system. They represent a serious health issue with an incidence between 2 and 7 per 100,000 and year. We provide a review about most important cancer entities, i.e., melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine cancer, and skin adnexal malignancies.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common vulvar malignancy that can develop from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or de novo. Basal cell carcinoma represents only 2 % of all vulvar cancers. Melanoma of the vulva exists in two major types—superficial spreading and acral lentiginous. A special feature is the occurrence of multiple vulvar melanomas. Of the adnexal cancer types Paget’s disease and carcinoma are seen more frequently than other adnexal malignancies. The dermatologist should be aware of this problem, since he might be the first to be consulted by patients for vulvar disease. Treatment should be interdisciplinary in close association to gynecologists, oncologists, and radiologists.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Akhtar-Danesh N, Elit L, Lytwyn A. Trends in incidence and survival of women with invasive vulvar cancer in the United States and Canada: a population-based study. Gynecol Oncol 2014;134:314–8. PubMed Akhtar-Danesh N, Elit L, Lytwyn A. Trends in incidence and survival of women with invasive vulvar cancer in the United States and Canada: a population-based study. Gynecol Oncol 2014;134:314–8. PubMed
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Robert Koch-Institut & Gesellschaft der epidemiologischen Krebsregister in Deutschland e. V. Krebs in Deutschland 2009/2010. Beiträge zur Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes, 9. Ausgabe. Berlin: Robert-Koch-Institut; 2013. pp. 72–6. Robert Koch-Institut & Gesellschaft der epidemiologischen Krebsregister in Deutschland e. V. Krebs in Deutschland 2009/2010. Beiträge zur Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes, 9. Ausgabe. Berlin: Robert-Koch-Institut; 2013. pp. 72–6.
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Pathak D, Agrawal S, Dhali TK. Prevalences of and risk factors for vulvar diseases in Nepal: a hospital-based study. Int J Dermatol 2011;50:161–7. PubMed Pathak D, Agrawal S, Dhali TK. Prevalences of and risk factors for vulvar diseases in Nepal: a hospital-based study. Int J Dermatol 2011;50:161–7. PubMed
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Dittmer C, Katalinic A, Mundhenke C, Thill M, Fischer D. Epidemiology of vulvar and vaginal cancer in Germany. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2011;284:169–74. PubMed Dittmer C, Katalinic A, Mundhenke C, Thill M, Fischer D. Epidemiology of vulvar and vaginal cancer in Germany. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2011;284:169–74. PubMed
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Bromfield ME, Gibson TN, Hanchard B, Waugh N, McNaughton D. A Thirty-year review of vulvar cancer in Jamaica, 1978 to 2007. West Indian Med J 2014;63:138–41. Bromfield ME, Gibson TN, Hanchard B, Waugh N, McNaughton D. A Thirty-year review of vulvar cancer in Jamaica, 1978 to 2007. West Indian Med J 2014;63:138–41.
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Deliveliotou A, Creatsas G. Anatomy of the vulva. In: Farage MA, Maibach HI, editors. The vulva. Anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Informa Healthcare, New York; 2006. pp. 1–8. Deliveliotou A, Creatsas G. Anatomy of the vulva. In: Farage MA, Maibach HI, editors. The vulva. Anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Informa Healthcare, New York; 2006. pp. 1–8.
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Wollina U, Hansel G, Koch A, et al. Diagnostik und therapeutisches Vorgehen bei extrakutanem Melanom und unbekanntem Primarius. In: Szeimies R-M, Hauschild A, Garbe C, Kaufmann R, Landthaler M, editors. Tumoren der Haut. Grundlagen, Diagnostik und Therapie in der dermatologischen Onkologie. G Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart; 2010. pp. 404–14. Wollina U, Hansel G, Koch A, et al. Diagnostik und therapeutisches Vorgehen bei extrakutanem Melanom und unbekanntem Primarius. In: Szeimies R-M, Hauschild A, Garbe C, Kaufmann R, Landthaler M, editors. Tumoren der Haut. Grundlagen, Diagnostik und Therapie in der dermatologischen Onkologie. G Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart; 2010. pp. 404–14.
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Murzaku EC, Penn LA, Hale CS, Keltz Pomeranz M, Polsky D. Vulvar nevi, melanosis, and melanoma: an epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathologic review. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014;71:12412–9. Murzaku EC, Penn LA, Hale CS, Keltz Pomeranz M, Polsky D. Vulvar nevi, melanosis, and melanoma: an epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathologic review. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014;71:12412–9.
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Tcheung WJ, Selim MA, Herndon JE 2nd, et al. Clinicopathologic study of 85 cases of melanoma of the female genitalia. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;67:598–605. PubMed Tcheung WJ, Selim MA, Herndon JE 2nd, et al. Clinicopathologic study of 85 cases of melanoma of the female genitalia. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;67:598–605. PubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Baderca F, Cojocaru S, Lazăr E, et al. Amelanotic vulvar melanoma: case report and review of the literature. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2008;49:219–28. PubMed Baderca F, Cojocaru S, Lazăr E, et al. Amelanotic vulvar melanoma: case report and review of the literature. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2008;49:219–28. PubMed
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A, Grant WB, Juzeniene A. Where the sun does not shine: is sunshine protective against melanoma of the vulva? J Photochem Photobiol B 2010;101:179–83. PubMed Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A, Grant WB, Juzeniene A. Where the sun does not shine: is sunshine protective against melanoma of the vulva? J Photochem Photobiol B 2010;101:179–83. PubMed
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Ragnarsson-Olding BK. Spatial density of primary malignant melanoma in sun-shielded body sites: a potential guide to melanoma genesis. Acta Oncol 2011;50:323–8. PubMed Ragnarsson-Olding BK. Spatial density of primary malignant melanoma in sun-shielded body sites: a potential guide to melanoma genesis. Acta Oncol 2011;50:323–8. PubMed
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Aulmann S, Sinn HP, Penzel R, et al. Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas. Mod Pathol 2014;27:1386–93. PubMed Aulmann S, Sinn HP, Penzel R, et al. Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas. Mod Pathol 2014;27:1386–93. PubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Massi G, LeBoit PE. Melanoma on genital skin. In: Massi G, LeBoit PE, editors. Histological diagnosis of nevi and melanoma. 2nd Edn. Heidelberg—Berlin: Springer; 2014. pp 653–62. Massi G, LeBoit PE. Melanoma on genital skin. In: Massi G, LeBoit PE, editors. Histological diagnosis of nevi and melanoma. 2nd Edn. Heidelberg—Berlin: Springer; 2014. pp 653–62.
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Carlson JA, Mu XC, Slominski A, Weismann K, et al. Melanocytic proliferations associated with lichen sclerosus. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:77–87. PubMed Carlson JA, Mu XC, Slominski A, Weismann K, et al. Melanocytic proliferations associated with lichen sclerosus. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:77–87. PubMed
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Ferrari A, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G, et al. Dermoscopy of pigmented lesions of the vulva: a retrospective morphological study. Dermatology. 2011;222:157–66. PubMed Ferrari A, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G, et al. Dermoscopy of pigmented lesions of the vulva: a retrospective morphological study. Dermatology. 2011;222:157–66. PubMed
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Wollina U, Burroni M, Torricelli R, et al. Digital dermoscopy in clinical practise: a three-centre analysis. Skin Res Technol. 2007;13:133–42. PubMed Wollina U, Burroni M, Torricelli R, et al. Digital dermoscopy in clinical practise: a three-centre analysis. Skin Res Technol. 2007;13:133–42. PubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat van Engen-van Grunsven AC, Küsters-Vandevelde HV, De Hullu J, et al. NRAS mutations are more prevalent than KIT mutations in melanoma of the female urogenital tract—a study of 24 cases from the Netherlands. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;134:10–4. van Engen-van Grunsven AC, Küsters-Vandevelde HV, De Hullu J, et al. NRAS mutations are more prevalent than KIT mutations in melanoma of the female urogenital tract—a study of 24 cases from the Netherlands. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;134:10–4.
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Mehra T, Grözinger G, Mann S, et al. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma. PLoS One. 2014;9:e112535. PubMedCentralPubMed Mehra T, Grözinger G, Mann S, et al. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma. PLoS One. 2014;9:e112535. PubMedCentralPubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Balch CM, Gershenwald JE, Soong S, et al. Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:6199–206. PubMedCentralPubMed Balch CM, Gershenwald JE, Soong S, et al. Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:6199–206. PubMedCentralPubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Pflugfelder A, Kochs C, Blum A, et al. Malignant melanoma S3-guideline “Diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of melanoma”. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2013;6:1–116, 1–126. Pflugfelder A, Kochs C, Blum A, et al. Malignant melanoma S3-guideline “Diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of melanoma”. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2013;6:1–116, 1–126.
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Leitao MM Jr. Management of vulvar and vaginal melanomas: current and future strategies. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2014:e277–81. Leitao MM Jr. Management of vulvar and vaginal melanomas: current and future strategies. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2014:e277–81.
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Trifirò G, Travaini LL, Sanvito F, et al. Sentinel node detection by lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar melanoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:736–41. PubMed Trifirò G, Travaini LL, Sanvito F, et al. Sentinel node detection by lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar melanoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:736–41. PubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Moxley KM, Fader AN, Rose PG, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva: an extension of cutaneous melanoma? Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122:612–7. PubMed Moxley KM, Fader AN, Rose PG, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva: an extension of cutaneous melanoma? Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122:612–7. PubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Yuan GW, Wu LY, Zhang R, Li XG. Clinical analysis for 18 cases of vulvar Bowen’s disease. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2013;48:925–8. PubMed Yuan GW, Wu LY, Zhang R, Li XG. Clinical analysis for 18 cases of vulvar Bowen’s disease. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2013;48:925–8. PubMed
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Lazaridou E, Fotiadou C, Giannopoulou C, Ioannides D. Persistent erythematous lesion of the vulva: a diagnostic and treatment challenge. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11:110–2. PubMed Lazaridou E, Fotiadou C, Giannopoulou C, Ioannides D. Persistent erythematous lesion of the vulva: a diagnostic and treatment challenge. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11:110–2. PubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Kang HK, Yun JH, Son YM, Roh JY, Lee JR. Photodynamic therapy for Bowen’s disease of the vulva area. Ann Dermatol. 2014;26:241–5. PubMedCentralPubMed Kang HK, Yun JH, Son YM, Roh JY, Lee JR. Photodynamic therapy for Bowen’s disease of the vulva area. Ann Dermatol. 2014;26:241–5. PubMedCentralPubMed
28.
Zurück zum Zitat van de Nieuwenhof HP, van der Avoort IA, de Hullu JA. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2008;68:131–56. PubMed van de Nieuwenhof HP, van der Avoort IA, de Hullu JA. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2008;68:131–56. PubMed
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Preti M, Scurry J, Marchitelli CE, Micheletti L. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28:1051–62 (pii: S1521-6934(14)00134-5). PubMed Preti M, Scurry J, Marchitelli CE, Micheletti L. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28:1051–62 (pii: S1521-6934(14)00134-5). PubMed
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Léonard B, Kridelka F, Delbecque K, et al. A clinical and pathological overview of vulvar condyloma acuminatum, intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:480573. PubMedCentralPubMed Léonard B, Kridelka F, Delbecque K, et al. A clinical and pathological overview of vulvar condyloma acuminatum, intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:480573. PubMedCentralPubMed
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Chiesa-Vottero A, Dvoretsky PM, Hart WR. Histopathologic study of thin vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and associated cutaneous lesions: a correlative study of 48 tumors in 44 patients with analysis of adjacent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia types and lichen sclerosus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:310–8. PubMed Chiesa-Vottero A, Dvoretsky PM, Hart WR. Histopathologic study of thin vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and associated cutaneous lesions: a correlative study of 48 tumors in 44 patients with analysis of adjacent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia types and lichen sclerosus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:310–8. PubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K, Iversen OE, et al. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:868–78. Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K, Iversen OE, et al. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:868–78.
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Couto E, Sæterdal I, Juvet LK, Klemp M. HPV catch-up vaccination of young women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:867. PubMedCentralPubMed Couto E, Sæterdal I, Juvet LK, Klemp M. HPV catch-up vaccination of young women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:867. PubMedCentralPubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Gentile M, Bianchi P, Sesti F, et al. Adjuvant topical treatment with imiquimod 5 % after excisional surgery for VIN 2/3. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18:2949–52. PubMed Gentile M, Bianchi P, Sesti F, et al. Adjuvant topical treatment with imiquimod 5 % after excisional surgery for VIN 2/3. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18:2949–52. PubMed
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Tristram A, Hurt CN, Madden T, et al. Activity, safety, and feasibility of cidofovir and imiquimod for treatment of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (RT3VIN): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:1361–8 (pii: S1470-2045(14)70456-5). PubMed Tristram A, Hurt CN, Madden T, et al. Activity, safety, and feasibility of cidofovir and imiquimod for treatment of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (RT3VIN): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:1361–8 (pii: S1470-2045(14)70456-5). PubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Judson PL, Habermann EB, Baxter NN, Durham SB, Virnig BA. Trends in the incidence of invasive and in situ vulvar carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:1018–22. PubMed Judson PL, Habermann EB, Baxter NN, Durham SB, Virnig BA. Trends in the incidence of invasive and in situ vulvar carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:1018–22. PubMed
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Hasanzadeh M, Zamiri-Akhlaghi A, Hassanpoor-Moghaddam M, Shahidsales S. Vulvar carcinoma in pregnant women aged less than 40 years: case report. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2014;7:175–8. PubMedCentralPubMed Hasanzadeh M, Zamiri-Akhlaghi A, Hassanpoor-Moghaddam M, Shahidsales S. Vulvar carcinoma in pregnant women aged less than 40 years: case report. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2014;7:175–8. PubMedCentralPubMed
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Ciszko B, Pochwałowski M, St Gabryś M. Risk factors and clinical characteristic patients with vulvar cancer. Ginekol Pol. 2006;77:914–21. PubMed Ciszko B, Pochwałowski M, St Gabryś M. Risk factors and clinical characteristic patients with vulvar cancer. Ginekol Pol. 2006;77:914–21. PubMed
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Aragona AM, Cuneo NA, Soderini AH, Alcoba EB. An analysis of reported independent prognostic factors for survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: is tumor size significance being underrated? Gynecol Oncol. 2014;132:643–8. PubMed Aragona AM, Cuneo NA, Soderini AH, Alcoba EB. An analysis of reported independent prognostic factors for survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: is tumor size significance being underrated? Gynecol Oncol. 2014;132:643–8. PubMed
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Simbiri KO, Jha HC, Kayembe MK, Kovarik C, Robertson ES. Oncogenic viruses associated with vulva cancer in HIV-1 patients in Botswana. Infect Agent Cancer. 2014;9:28. PubMedCentralPubMed Simbiri KO, Jha HC, Kayembe MK, Kovarik C, Robertson ES. Oncogenic viruses associated with vulva cancer in HIV-1 patients in Botswana. Infect Agent Cancer. 2014;9:28. PubMedCentralPubMed
41.
Zurück zum Zitat van Seters W, ten Kate FJW, van Beurden M, Verheijen RHM, et al. In the absence of (early) invasive carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with lichen sclerosus is mainly of undifferentiated type: new insights in histology and aetiology. J Clin Pathol. 2007;60:504–9. PubMedCentralPubMed van Seters W, ten Kate FJW, van Beurden M, Verheijen RHM, et al. In the absence of (early) invasive carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with lichen sclerosus is mainly of undifferentiated type: new insights in histology and aetiology. J Clin Pathol. 2007;60:504–9. PubMedCentralPubMed
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Chulvis do Val IC, Almeida Filho GL, Valiante PM, Gondim C, Takiya CM, Carvalho Mda G. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia p53 expression, p53 gene mutation and HPV in recurrent/progressive cases. J Reprod Med. 2004;49:868–74. PubMed Chulvis do Val IC, Almeida Filho GL, Valiante PM, Gondim C, Takiya CM, Carvalho Mda G. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia p53 expression, p53 gene mutation and HPV in recurrent/progressive cases. J Reprod Med. 2004;49:868–74. PubMed
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Trietsch MD, Spaans VM, Ter Haar NT, et al. CDKN2A (p16) and HRAS are frequently mutated in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;135:149–55. PubMed Trietsch MD, Spaans VM, Ter Haar NT, et al. CDKN2A (p16) and HRAS are frequently mutated in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;135:149–55. PubMed
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Li YZ, Li SL, Li X, et al. Expression of endogenous hypoxia markers in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:3675–80. PubMed Li YZ, Li SL, Li X, et al. Expression of endogenous hypoxia markers in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:3675–80. PubMed
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Zanvettor PH, Filho DF, Soares FA, Neves AR, Palmeira LO. Study of biomolecular and clinical prognostic factors in patients with cancer of the vulva undergoing surgical treatment. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014;24:766–72. PubMed Zanvettor PH, Filho DF, Soares FA, Neves AR, Palmeira LO. Study of biomolecular and clinical prognostic factors in patients with cancer of the vulva undergoing surgical treatment. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014;24:766–72. PubMed
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;105:103–4. PubMed Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;105:103–4. PubMed
47.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Shea C, Fitzpatrick JE, Koch PJ. Desmosomal defects in acantholytic squamous cell carcinomas. J Cutan Pathol. 2014;41:873–9. PubMed O’Shea C, Fitzpatrick JE, Koch PJ. Desmosomal defects in acantholytic squamous cell carcinomas. J Cutan Pathol. 2014;41:873–9. PubMed
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Sznurkowski JJ, Milczek T, Emerich J. Prognostic factors and a value of 2009 FIGO staging system in vulvar cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013;287:1211–8. PubMedCentralPubMed Sznurkowski JJ, Milczek T, Emerich J. Prognostic factors and a value of 2009 FIGO staging system in vulvar cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013;287:1211–8. PubMedCentralPubMed
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Verma SB, Wollina U. Condyloma-like squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: report of two midline cases. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2012;5:129–33. PubMedCentralPubMed Verma SB, Wollina U. Condyloma-like squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: report of two midline cases. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2012;5:129–33. PubMedCentralPubMed
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Deka P, Barmon D, Shribastava S, Kataki AC, Sharma JD, Bhattacharyya M. Prognosis of vulvar cancer with lymph node status and size of primary lesion: a survival study. J Midlife Health. 2014;5:10–3. PubMedCentralPubMed Deka P, Barmon D, Shribastava S, Kataki AC, Sharma JD, Bhattacharyya M. Prognosis of vulvar cancer with lymph node status and size of primary lesion: a survival study. J Midlife Health. 2014;5:10–3. PubMedCentralPubMed
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Lawrie TA, Patel A, Martin-Hirsch PP, et al. Sentinel node assessment for diagnosis of groin lymph node involvement in vulval cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;6:CD010409. PubMed Lawrie TA, Patel A, Martin-Hirsch PP, et al. Sentinel node assessment for diagnosis of groin lymph node involvement in vulval cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;6:CD010409. PubMed
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Robison K, Roque D, McCourt C, et al. Long-term follow-up of vulvar cancer patients evaluated with sentinel lymph node biopsy alone. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;133:416–20. PubMed Robison K, Roque D, McCourt C, et al. Long-term follow-up of vulvar cancer patients evaluated with sentinel lymph node biopsy alone. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;133:416–20. PubMed
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Herr D, Juhasz-Boess I, Solomayer EF. Therapy for primary vulvar carcinoma. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2014;74:271–5. PubMedCentralPubMed Herr D, Juhasz-Boess I, Solomayer EF. Therapy for primary vulvar carcinoma. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2014;74:271–5. PubMedCentralPubMed
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Micheletti L, Preti M. Surgery of the vulva in vulvar cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28:1074–87 (pii: S1521-6934(14)00135-7). PubMed Micheletti L, Preti M. Surgery of the vulva in vulvar cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28:1074–87 (pii: S1521-6934(14)00135-7). PubMed
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Bogani G, Cromi A, Serati M, et al. Predictors and patterns of local, regional, and distant failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Clin Oncol. 2014 [Epub ahead of print]. Bogani G, Cromi A, Serati M, et al. Predictors and patterns of local, regional, and distant failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Clin Oncol. 2014 [Epub ahead of print].
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Graham K, Burton K. “Unresectable” vulval cancers: is neoadjuvant chemotherapy the way forward? Curr Oncol Rep. 2013;15:573–80. PubMed Graham K, Burton K. “Unresectable” vulval cancers: is neoadjuvant chemotherapy the way forward? Curr Oncol Rep. 2013;15:573–80. PubMed
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Gynecology, Kidd E, Moore D, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® management of locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Clin Oncol. 2013;36:415–22. Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Gynecology, Kidd E, Moore D, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® management of locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Clin Oncol. 2013;36:415–22.
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Iavazzo C, Fotiou S, Salakos N, Bakalianou K, Kondi-Pafiti A. HPV-related verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. A case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2011;32:680–1. PubMed Iavazzo C, Fotiou S, Salakos N, Bakalianou K, Kondi-Pafiti A. HPV-related verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. A case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2011;32:680–1. PubMed
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Boujoual M, Hachi H, Rimani M, El Khannoussi B, Bougtab A. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva: report of four cases. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;17:303. PubMedCentralPubMed Boujoual M, Hachi H, Rimani M, El Khannoussi B, Bougtab A. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva: report of four cases. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;17:303. PubMedCentralPubMed
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Spinu D, Rădulescu A, Bratu O, Checheriţă IA, Ranetti AE, Mischianu D. Giant condyloma acuminatum—Buschke-Lowenstein disease—a literature review. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2014;109:445–50. Spinu D, Rădulescu A, Bratu O, Checheriţă IA, Ranetti AE, Mischianu D. Giant condyloma acuminatum—Buschke-Lowenstein disease—a literature review. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2014;109:445–50.
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy A, Lebbe C. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Urol (Paris). 2006;7:175–8. Levy A, Lebbe C. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Urol (Paris). 2006;7:175–8.
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Indinnimeo M, Impagnatiello A, D’Ettorre G, et al. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor with squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemo-radiation therapy and local surgical excision: report of three cases. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11:231. PubMedCentralPubMed Indinnimeo M, Impagnatiello A, D’Ettorre G, et al. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor with squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemo-radiation therapy and local surgical excision: report of three cases. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11:231. PubMedCentralPubMed
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Ulas M, Bostanci EB, Teke Z, et al. Giant anorectal condyloma acuminatum of Buschke-Löwenstein: successful plastic reconstruction with bilateral gluteal musculocutaneous v-y advancement flap. Indian J Surg. 2013;75(Suppl 1):168–70. PubMedCentralPubMed Ulas M, Bostanci EB, Teke Z, et al. Giant anorectal condyloma acuminatum of Buschke-Löwenstein: successful plastic reconstruction with bilateral gluteal musculocutaneous v-y advancement flap. Indian J Surg. 2013;75(Suppl 1):168–70. PubMedCentralPubMed
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Santos-Briz A, Antúnez P, López-Ríos F, Rodríguez-Peralto JL, Garzón A. Human papillomavirus-negative spindle cell carcinoma of the vulva associated with lichen sclerosus: case report and literature review. Am J Dermatopathol. 2002;24:135–8. PubMed Santos-Briz A, Antúnez P, López-Ríos F, Rodríguez-Peralto JL, Garzón A. Human papillomavirus-negative spindle cell carcinoma of the vulva associated with lichen sclerosus: case report and literature review. Am J Dermatopathol. 2002;24:135–8. PubMed
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Bigby SM, Eva LJ, Jones RW. Spindle cell carcinoma of the vulva: a series of 4 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014;33:203–12. PubMed Bigby SM, Eva LJ, Jones RW. Spindle cell carcinoma of the vulva: a series of 4 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014;33:203–12. PubMed
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Choi DS, Lee JW, Lee SJ, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features of the vulva: a case report and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:363–7. PubMed Choi DS, Lee JW, Lee SJ, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features of the vulva: a case report and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:363–7. PubMed
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Kanitakis J, Arbona-Vidal E, Faure M. Extensive pigmented vulvar basal-cell carcinoma presenting as pruritus in an elderly woman. Dermatol Online J. 2011;17:8. PubMed Kanitakis J, Arbona-Vidal E, Faure M. Extensive pigmented vulvar basal-cell carcinoma presenting as pruritus in an elderly woman. Dermatol Online J. 2011;17:8. PubMed
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Saini R, Sarnoff DS. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7:288–90. PubMed Saini R, Sarnoff DS. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7:288–90. PubMed
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Asuman C, Ozlem A, Burçak T, Onder P. An unusual location of basal cell carcinoma: the clitoris and the vulva. Indian J Dermatol. 2008;53:192–4. PubMedCentralPubMed Asuman C, Ozlem A, Burçak T, Onder P. An unusual location of basal cell carcinoma: the clitoris and the vulva. Indian J Dermatol. 2008;53:192–4. PubMedCentralPubMed
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Pisani C, Poggiali S, De Padova L, Andreassi A, Bilenchi R. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:446–8. PubMed Pisani C, Poggiali S, De Padova L, Andreassi A, Bilenchi R. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:446–8. PubMed
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Kara M, Colgecen E, Yildirim EN. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012;55:583–4. PubMed Kara M, Colgecen E, Yildirim EN. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012;55:583–4. PubMed
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Wollina U, Pabst F, Krönert C, et al. High-risk basal cell carcinoma: an update. Exp Rev Dermatol. 2010;5:357–68. Wollina U, Pabst F, Krönert C, et al. High-risk basal cell carcinoma: an update. Exp Rev Dermatol. 2010;5:357–68.
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Perrone T, Twiggs LB, Adcock LL, Dehner LP. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: an infrequently metastasizing neoplasm. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987;6:152–65. PubMed Perrone T, Twiggs LB, Adcock LL, Dehner LP. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: an infrequently metastasizing neoplasm. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987;6:152–65. PubMed
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Elwood H, Kim J, Yemelyanova A, Ronnett BM, Taube JM. Basal cell carcinomas of the vulva: high-risk human papillomavirus DNA detection, p16 and BerEP4 expression. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:542–7. PubMed Elwood H, Kim J, Yemelyanova A, Ronnett BM, Taube JM. Basal cell carcinomas of the vulva: high-risk human papillomavirus DNA detection, p16 and BerEP4 expression. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:542–7. PubMed
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Mulvany NJ, Rayoo M, Allen DG. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a case series. Pathology. 2012;44:528–33. PubMed Mulvany NJ, Rayoo M, Allen DG. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a case series. Pathology. 2012;44:528–33. PubMed
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Rouzbahman M, Clarke B. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gynecologic tract: select topics. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2013;30:224–33. PubMed Rouzbahman M, Clarke B. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gynecologic tract: select topics. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2013;30:224–33. PubMed
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Sheikh ZA, Nair I, Vijaykumar DK, Jojo A, Nandeesh M. Neuroendocrine tumor of vulva: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther. 2010;6:365–6. PubMed Sheikh ZA, Nair I, Vijaykumar DK, Jojo A, Nandeesh M. Neuroendocrine tumor of vulva: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther. 2010;6:365–6. PubMed
78.
Zurück zum Zitat Hierro I, Blanes A, Matilla A, Muñoz S, Vicioso L, Nogales FF. Merkel cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the vulva. A case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2000;196:503–9. PubMed Hierro I, Blanes A, Matilla A, Muñoz S, Vicioso L, Nogales FF. Merkel cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the vulva. A case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2000;196:503–9. PubMed
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Jońska-Gmyrek J, Bobkiewicz P, Gmyrek L, Zółciak-Siwińska A, Lindner B, Staniaszek J. Merkel cell carcinoma of the vulva—case report and the literature review. Ginekol Pol. 2013;84:385–9. PubMed Jońska-Gmyrek J, Bobkiewicz P, Gmyrek L, Zółciak-Siwińska A, Lindner B, Staniaszek J. Merkel cell carcinoma of the vulva—case report and the literature review. Ginekol Pol. 2013;84:385–9. PubMed
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Cardoso JC, Teixeira V, Tchernev G, Wollina U. Merkel cell carcinoma: a review and update on aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment approaches. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013;163:359–67. PubMed Cardoso JC, Teixeira V, Tchernev G, Wollina U. Merkel cell carcinoma: a review and update on aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment approaches. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013;163:359–67. PubMed
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Iavazzo C, Terzi M, Arapantoni-Dadioti P, Dertimas V, Vorgias G. Vulvar Merkel carcinoma: a case report. Case Rep Med. 2011;2011:546972. PubMedCentralPubMed Iavazzo C, Terzi M, Arapantoni-Dadioti P, Dertimas V, Vorgias G. Vulvar Merkel carcinoma: a case report. Case Rep Med. 2011;2011:546972. PubMedCentralPubMed
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Mharrech A, Benchakroun N, Tawfiq N, et al. Small-cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006;35:834–83. Mharrech A, Benchakroun N, Tawfiq N, et al. Small-cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006;35:834–83.
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Atienza-Amores M, Guerini-Rocco E, Soslow RA, Park KJ, Weigelt B. Small cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract: a multifaceted spectrum of lesions. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;134:410–8. PubMed Atienza-Amores M, Guerini-Rocco E, Soslow RA, Park KJ, Weigelt B. Small cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract: a multifaceted spectrum of lesions. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;134:410–8. PubMed
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Matsumoto R, Bito T, Washio K, et al. Primary cutaneous small cell carcinoma of the vulva arising from squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165:1147–8. PubMed Matsumoto R, Bito T, Washio K, et al. Primary cutaneous small cell carcinoma of the vulva arising from squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165:1147–8. PubMed
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Cohen J, Chan JK, Kapp DS. The management of small-cell carcinomas of the gynecologic tract. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24:572–9. PubMed Cohen J, Chan JK, Kapp DS. The management of small-cell carcinomas of the gynecologic tract. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24:572–9. PubMed
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Eckert F, Fehm T, Bamberg M, Müller AC. Small cell carcinoma of vulva: curative multimodal treatment in face of resistance to initial standard chemotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol. 2010;186:521–4. PubMed Eckert F, Fehm T, Bamberg M, Müller AC. Small cell carcinoma of vulva: curative multimodal treatment in face of resistance to initial standard chemotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol. 2010;186:521–4. PubMed
87.
Zurück zum Zitat Jiménez-Ayala M, Pinedo Moraleda F, Rodríguez Alvarez MC. Glandular lesions of the vulva. Monogr Clin Cytol. 2011;20:77–86. PubMed Jiménez-Ayala M, Pinedo Moraleda F, Rodríguez Alvarez MC. Glandular lesions of the vulva. Monogr Clin Cytol. 2011;20:77–86. PubMed
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Robson A, Lazar AJ, Nagi JB, et al. Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 24 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:682–90. PubMed Robson A, Lazar AJ, Nagi JB, et al. Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 24 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:682–90. PubMed
89.
Zurück zum Zitat Bagwan IN, Taylor A, Dina R. Metastatic apocrine carcinoma of female genital tract. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:287–88. PubMed Bagwan IN, Taylor A, Dina R. Metastatic apocrine carcinoma of female genital tract. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:287–88. PubMed
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Van der Putte SCJ, van Gorp LHM. Adenocarcinoma of the mammary-like glands of the vulva: A concept unifying sweat gland carcinoma of the vulva, carcinoma of supernumerary mammary glands and extramammary Paget’s disease. J Cutan Pathol. 1994;21:157–63. PubMed Van der Putte SCJ, van Gorp LHM. Adenocarcinoma of the mammary-like glands of the vulva: A concept unifying sweat gland carcinoma of the vulva, carcinoma of supernumerary mammary glands and extramammary Paget’s disease. J Cutan Pathol. 1994;21:157–63. PubMed
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Hou JL, Wu LY, Zhang HT, Lv NN, Huang Y, Yu GZ. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:874–8. PubMed Hou JL, Wu LY, Zhang HT, Lv NN, Huang Y, Yu GZ. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:874–8. PubMed
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Tang QL, Jiang XF, Lin ZQ, Li HG, Wang YA, Luo X. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of sweat glands in vulva: report of an unusual case and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1694–7. PubMed Tang QL, Jiang XF, Lin ZQ, Li HG, Wang YA, Luo X. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of sweat glands in vulva: report of an unusual case and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1694–7. PubMed
93.
Zurück zum Zitat Sahincioğlu O, Berker B, Güngör M, Kankaya D, Sertçelik A. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin’s gland: a rare tumor unmarked by persistent vulvar pain in a postmenopausal woman. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:473–6. PubMed Sahincioğlu O, Berker B, Güngör M, Kankaya D, Sertçelik A. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin’s gland: a rare tumor unmarked by persistent vulvar pain in a postmenopausal woman. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:473–6. PubMed
95.
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Chraibi Z, Hebert T, Body G, Arbion F, Ouldamer L. Bartholin’s gland carcinoma. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2014;42:540–2. PubMed Chraibi Z, Hebert T, Body G, Arbion F, Ouldamer L. Bartholin’s gland carcinoma. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2014;42:540–2. PubMed
97.
Zurück zum Zitat Obermair A, Koller S, Crandon AJ, Perrin L, Nicklin JL. Primary Bartholin gland carcinoma: a report of seven cases. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;41:78–81. PubMed Obermair A, Koller S, Crandon AJ, Perrin L, Nicklin JL. Primary Bartholin gland carcinoma: a report of seven cases. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;41:78–81. PubMed
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Kozakiewicz B, Dmoch-Gajzlerska E, Roszkowska-Purska K. Carcinomas and sarcomas of Bartholin gland. A report of nine cases and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014;35:243–9. PubMed Kozakiewicz B, Dmoch-Gajzlerska E, Roszkowska-Purska K. Carcinomas and sarcomas of Bartholin gland. A report of nine cases and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014;35:243–9. PubMed
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Agolli L, Osti MF, Armosini V, De Sanctis V, Valeriani M, Enrici RM. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of Bartholin’s gland receiving adjuvant radiation therapy: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2013;34:487–8. PubMed Agolli L, Osti MF, Armosini V, De Sanctis V, Valeriani M, Enrici RM. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of Bartholin’s gland receiving adjuvant radiation therapy: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2013;34:487–8. PubMed
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Ohno T, Nakano T, Abe A, Sano T, Niibe Y, Oka K. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of Bartholin gland treated with radiation therapy: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2001;31:226–30. PubMed Ohno T, Nakano T, Abe A, Sano T, Niibe Y, Oka K. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of Bartholin gland treated with radiation therapy: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2001;31:226–30. PubMed
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Chung-Park M, Zheng Liu C, Giampoli EJ, Emery JD, Shalodi A. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of ectopic breast tissue of the vulva. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126:1216–8. PubMed Chung-Park M, Zheng Liu C, Giampoli EJ, Emery JD, Shalodi A. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of ectopic breast tissue of the vulva. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126:1216–8. PubMed
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Alsaad KO, Obaidat N, Dube V, Chapman W, Ghazarian D. Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation. Pathol Res Pract 2009;205:131–5. PubMed Alsaad KO, Obaidat N, Dube V, Chapman W, Ghazarian D. Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation. Pathol Res Pract 2009;205:131–5. PubMed
103.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee S, Nodit L. Phyllodes tumor of vulva: a brief diagnostic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014;138:1546–50. PubMed Lee S, Nodit L. Phyllodes tumor of vulva: a brief diagnostic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014;138:1546–50. PubMed
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Gavriilidis P, Chrysanthopoulos K, Gerasimidou D. Extramammary Paget’s disease of the vulva. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;pii:bcr2013200623. Gavriilidis P, Chrysanthopoulos K, Gerasimidou D. Extramammary Paget’s disease of the vulva. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;pii:bcr2013200623.
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Wollina U. Extensive extramammary Paget’s disease: surgical treatment. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2013;6:40–4. Wollina U. Extensive extramammary Paget’s disease: surgical treatment. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2013;6:40–4.
106.
Zurück zum Zitat Barmon D, Kataki AC, Imchen L, Sharma JD. Extra mammary Paget’s disease of the vulva. J Midlife Health. 2012;3:100–2. PubMedCentralPubMed Barmon D, Kataki AC, Imchen L, Sharma JD. Extra mammary Paget’s disease of the vulva. J Midlife Health. 2012;3:100–2. PubMedCentralPubMed
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Cooper JC, Hew KE, Audlin KM, Im DD, Matsuo K. Synchronous of breast and vulvar Paget’s disease: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012;33:534–6. PubMed Cooper JC, Hew KE, Audlin KM, Im DD, Matsuo K. Synchronous of breast and vulvar Paget’s disease: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012;33:534–6. PubMed
108.
Zurück zum Zitat Kim S-A, Kwon J-I, Jung H-R, Lee K-S, Cho J-W. Primary extramammary Paget’s disease combined with Bowen’s disease in vulva. Ann Dermatol. 2011;23(Suppl 2):S222–5. PubMedCentralPubMed Kim S-A, Kwon J-I, Jung H-R, Lee K-S, Cho J-W. Primary extramammary Paget’s disease combined with Bowen’s disease in vulva. Ann Dermatol. 2011;23(Suppl 2):S222–5. PubMedCentralPubMed
109.
Zurück zum Zitat Clayton EF, Rubin SC, Dumoff KL. Paget cells in endometrial and endocervical curettings in a patient with recurrent vulvar Paget’s disease. Int J Surg Pathol. 2013;22:374–7. PubMed Clayton EF, Rubin SC, Dumoff KL. Paget cells in endometrial and endocervical curettings in a patient with recurrent vulvar Paget’s disease. Int J Surg Pathol. 2013;22:374–7. PubMed
110.
Zurück zum Zitat Ladak A, Bramley M, Titi S. Unilateral pigmented extramammary Paget’s disease of the axilla associated with a benign mole: a case study and a review of literature. Korean J Pathol. 2014;48:292–6. PubMedCentralPubMed Ladak A, Bramley M, Titi S. Unilateral pigmented extramammary Paget’s disease of the axilla associated with a benign mole: a case study and a review of literature. Korean J Pathol. 2014;48:292–6. PubMedCentralPubMed
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Luyten A, Sörgel P, Clad A, et al. Interventions for the treatment of Paget’s disease of the vulva. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD009245. Luyten A, Sörgel P, Clad A, et al. Interventions for the treatment of Paget’s disease of the vulva. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD009245.
112.
Zurück zum Zitat Lellé RJ, Harter P, Buttmann N, Petry KU. Treatment of extramammary Paget disease of the vulva with imiquimod: a retrospective, multicenter study by the German Colposcopy Network. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70:644–50. PubMed Lellé RJ, Harter P, Buttmann N, Petry KU. Treatment of extramammary Paget disease of the vulva with imiquimod: a retrospective, multicenter study by the German Colposcopy Network. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70:644–50. PubMed
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Nardelli AA, Stafinski T, Menon D. Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy for mammary and extra-mammary Paget’s disease: a state of the science review. BMC Dermatol. 2011;11:13. PubMedCentralPubMed Nardelli AA, Stafinski T, Menon D. Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy for mammary and extra-mammary Paget’s disease: a state of the science review. BMC Dermatol. 2011;11:13. PubMedCentralPubMed
114.
Zurück zum Zitat Hata M, Koike I, Wada H, et al. Postoperative radiation therapy for extramammary Paget’s disease. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172:1014–20. doi:10.1111/bjd.13357. Hata M, Koike I, Wada H, et al. Postoperative radiation therapy for extramammary Paget’s disease. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172:1014–20. doi:10.1111/bjd.13357.
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Nomura H, Matoda M, Okamoto S, Kondo E, Omatsu K, Kato K, Takeshima N. Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes of primary extramammary Paget disease of the vulva. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015;19:145–8. Nomura H, Matoda M, Okamoto S, Kondo E, Omatsu K, Kato K, Takeshima N. Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes of primary extramammary Paget disease of the vulva. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015;19:145–8.
Metadaten
Titel
Vulvar cancer: a review for dermatologists
verfasst von
MD Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva
MD Prof Georgi Tchernev
MD Elena Castelli
MD Elisabetta Orlando
MBBS, DV & D Shyam B. Verma
MD Markus Grebe
MD Prof Uwe Wollina
Publikationsdatum
01.04.2015
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift / Ausgabe 7-8/2015
Print ISSN: 0043-5341
Elektronische ISSN: 1563-258X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10354-015-0354-9

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 7-8/2015

Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 7-8/2015 Zur Ausgabe

editorial

Editorial