Endemic nephropathy (EN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease. Strong association between EN and urothelial carcinoma was noted as early as 40–50 ago. The aim of the study was to determine and compare specific mortality and morbidity of renal pelvis and ureter (upper urothelium) carcinoma (UUC) among Croatia as a whole, Brod-Posavina County, and Croatian endemic area.
Data on UUC mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Indirect standardization was employed on data comparison by calculating standardized mortality ratio and morbidity ratio.
Our study results showed the specific mortality rate in the endemic area to be 26.3-fold and 7.3-fold the rate recorded in Croatia and Brod-Posavina County, respectively. The mean standardized mortality ratio obtained by indirect standardization yielded an 8-fold and 32-fold risk of death from UUC in the endemic area vs. Brod-Posavina County and Croatia as a whole, respectively. These data revealed the specific morbidity in the Croatian endemic area and Brod-Posavina County to be 13.95-fold and 3.78-fold the morbidity recorded at the national level, respectively. The standardized morbidity ratio also showed the risk of developing UUC in the Croatian endemic area to be 3.75-fold the risk in Brod-Posavina County and 16.4-fold the risk in Croatia.
These results showed that specific mortality and morbidity as well as standardized morbidity ratio and standardized mortality ratio were higher in Croatian endemic area than in Brod-Posavina County and Croatia.