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The aim of this study was to present a practical concept focusing on typical aspects of regular physical activity, exercise and physical modalities for patients suffering from metastatic bone disease or multiple myeloma.
A narrative review of the relevant scientific literature and presentation of clinical experiences.
In cancer patients with metastatic bone disease or multiple myeloma, pain is treated in an interdisciplinary and multimodal setting by using medication, radiotherapy and physical medical modalities (e.g. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation); however, modalities increasing local blood flow, such as ultrasound therapy, thermotherapy, massage, various electrotherapy options, are not performed at the site of the tumor. For physical activity and exercise, a suitable indication of the static and dynamic capacity of the affected skeletal structures is essential. This process includes strategies to maintain and improve mobility and independence. Individually tailored and adapted physical activity and exercise concepts (programs) within a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary setting (tumor board) are used to manage the condition and bone load-bearing capacity of the patient. Typical clinical features and complications, such as pathological fractures in patients suffering from metastatic bone disease and additionally hypercalcemia, monoclonal gammopathy with bone marrow aplasia and risk of renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma have to be considered when planning supportive strategies and rehabilitation.
In order to ensure the safety and effectiveness of regular physical activity, exercise, and physical modalities in patients with metastatic bone disease or multiple myeloma, typical contraindications and considerations should be noted.