Since chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) has been classified within myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) for a long time, most treatment data are derived from MDS trials. Owing to the limited number of CMML patients included in these trials, results are analyzed for the whole study population rather than for CMML patients as a distinct group. CMML patients with a myeloproliferative type of disease were often excluded. Therefore, generalization of data gained from MDS trials is very problematic. This review provides a brief overview of the treatment possibilities for patients with CMML. The paucity of existing clinical trials underlines the importance of including CMML patients into clinical studies whenever possible.