In 1902, the first successful kidney transplant ever was performed by E. Ullmann in Vienna. Also, the first clinical renal transplant in Austria was performed on June 17, 1965, by F. Piza in the same city. The first combined pancreas–kidney transplant was performed by R. Margreiter in 1979 in Innsbruck. H.J. Böhmig did the first liver transplant in 1972 in Vienna. The world’s first combined liver–kidney transplant was carried out by R. Margreiter in 1983 in Innsbruck. The same year as the first heart transplant, in 1985 the first combined heart–lung transplant and in 1986 the first double lung transplant were performed in Innsbruck by R. Margreiter and F. Gschnitzer, respectively. In 1989, for the first time, a single lung was transplanted in Vienna by W. Klepetko and E. Wolner. In 1989, the first successful multivisceral transplant including the entire small bowel worldwide took place in Innsbruck, with R. Margreiter and A. Königsrainer being the surgeons. An isolated bowel transplant was performed in Vienna by F. Mühlbacher in 1983. The world’s second double-hand transplant was performed in Innsbruck in 2000 by a team led by H. Piza and R. Margreiter. These pioneering transplants led to three multiorgan- and two kidney-transplant programs in Austria and generated activities that are among the best worldwide in terms of volume, and also quality.