The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about clinical findings, diagnostic work-up, and treatment of uveomeningeal syndromes, with special emphasis on the uveitic features of these pathologies.
Materials and methods
A thorough literature search was performed in the PubMed database. An additional search was conducted in Google Scholar to complete the collected items.
Uveomeningeal syndromes is an umbrella term for a group of pathologies that affect the uvea, retina, and meninges. They present with a plethora of clinical features ranging from meningitis and meningoencephalitis to uveitis. A wide spectrum of infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic conditions have been associated with these clinical entities. However, these syndromes are probably an autoimmune and inflammatory disorder, as they mainly cause inflammation to the ocular and neurologic body structures. However, less frequently, infectious uveitis with concomitant acute or chronic meningoencephalitis can also lead to uveomeningeal syndrome. Primary vitreoretinal (and central nerve system) lymphoma, as well as paraneoplastic disorders, should also be part of the differential diagnosis, before diagnosing a case as uveomeningeal syndrome.
The diagnostic approach in a patient with uveomeningeal syndrome can be extremely challenging. Thorough ophthalmic and medical history together with a detailed ophthalmic and systematic assessment forms the cornerstone of a holistic approach to these cases. A systematic algorithm is necessary for a methodical diagnostic and treatment approach, to organize an effective management plan for patients with uveomeningeal syndromes.