The last few years have witnessed significant advancements in arthroplasty. The procedure is mainly used to treat osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joint. Other joints such as the shoulder or ankle are also being successfully replaced by arthroplasty. The success of the operation depends on the implantation technique as well as the choice of material and fixation technique. Excellent results have been achieved especially in hip arthroplasty, with long-term survival rates of 90 %. However, the potential complications and sequelae are also worthy of mention, although they concern just a fraction of the treated patients. Careful preoperative planning, informing the patient accurately about the chances of success, and discussing the patient’s expectations are essential aspects of the treatment.