Leukemia is one of the most important hematological malignancies. Despite progress in leukemia therapy, recurrence is still one of the main reasons for treatment failure. Recently, gene polymorphisms have been the focus of attention as important factors in the recurrence of leukemia.
Relevant literature was identified by an electronic database search (1996–2018) of English-language literature using the terms “polymorphism”, “leukemia”, “prognosis”, “lymphoma”, and “relapse.”
Polymorphisms of genes involved in cell cycle, apoptosis, immune system, and drug metabolism enzymes have been associated with progression of hematological malignancies. These genetic changes can be associated with relapse and unfavorable clinical outcomes through potential impact on leukemic cells survival.
Considering the fact that gene polymorphisms could significantly affect pathophysiology of hematological malignancies, these genetic changes may be considered as potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic agents in these disorders.