The goal of this observational cohort study was to examine gender-specific differences in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in-hospital complications and mortality.
A cohort of 1550 patients with the primary diagnosis of ACS were enrolled in the study over a period of 4 years. The in-hospital mortality and complications were analyzed as the main outcome measures.
Women were significantly older compared to men (71 ± 11 years vs. 64 ± 12 years, p < 0.001) and had higher in-hospital mortality and complications due to this age difference. The prevalence of smoking was lower while hypertension and history of angina pectoris was more frequent in women, independent of age. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting as well as coronary catheterization significantly reduced in-hospital mortality and complications while thrombolytic therapy was associated with a 3.3 times increased mortality odds ratio (OR, p = 0.01). Other significant predictors of in-hospital mortality were in-hospital complications (OR 25, p < 0.001) and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, OR 4.5, p < 0.001).
Women differed from men in terms of ACS clinical characteristics, treatment, invasive procedures and survival outcome and some of these effects were age-related. The future emphasis should be based on the prevention of modifiable risk factors and identification of subgroups of female patients that could benefit from more aggressive therapeutic strategies.