Time-dependent changes in glycemic control might represent a strong predictor for coronary artery disease. Since a higher benefit from outpatient appointments has been discussed for female gender, the aim of the study was to assess gender differences in HbA1c levels and metabolic parameters at baseline as well as over 3 years of follow-up.
We analyzed the data of 54 female and 65 male type 1 diabetic patients, with comparable age and diabetes duration, who visited our diabetes outpatient clinic in the year 2006 as well as the follow-up visits until 2009.
In 2006, females showed higher HbA1c levels as compared to male subjects (8.59 ± 1.60 vs. 7.75 ± 1.41, p = 0.003). Longitudinal analysis revealed that the decrease in HbA1c until 2009 was more pronounced in women (decreased to 7.52 ± 1.00) than in men (decreased to 7.50 ± 0.99, p sex:time = 0.006); however, the significance was lost after adjusting for baseline levels. Further, females showed higher levels in total-cholesterol (p = 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.033), and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001) at baseline, whereas males had higher creatinine (p = 0.001) and uric acid levels (p < 0.001). No differences between the two sexes were shown for triglycerides at 2006. Additionally, uric acid levels were negatively associated with long term glycemic control, particularly in male patients.
Sex-related differences in metabolic parameters are present in patients with type 1 diabetes. Especially, our data suggests more adverse cardiometabolic risk markers in females. A potentially protective effect for hyperuricemia by hyperglycemia-related glucosuria is lacking in female patients with type 1 diabetes.