Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 13-14/2014

01.07.2014 | review

Pathways of Tumor development and progression in Drug-induced Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: a New Hope or the Next Great Confusion?

verfasst von: MD Assoc. Prof. Georgi Tchernev, MD Prof. Uwe Wollina

Erschienen in: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Ausgabe 13-14/2014

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Summary

The factors that lead to the clinical manifestation of the nonmelanocytic skin tumors are different. Ultraviolet radiation, infections with human papillomaviruses, and inherited or iatrogenic-induced immunosuppression (in cases of autoimmune diseases and organ transplant recipients) are considered to be some of the most important generators and/or costimulating factors supporting the appearance of “de-novo” mutations and obstruct, in one or another way, the cell cycle arrest, the programmed cell death (apoptosis), and the immunosurveillance. Preconditions are thus created for the initial persistence and subsequent proliferation of the malignant cell branch in the genome, with the simultaneous increase of the risk of nonmelanocytic skin tumor manifestation.
A number of medical drugs that possess a currently well-known selective, targeting, and immunomodulating effect, like the TNF-alpha inhibitors for example, most probably possess an additional blocking action on the death receptors within the framework of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In this way, they seem to be one of the major factors for the clinical manifestation not only of nonmelanocytic skin but also of a number of other type of tumors with a dependency on the genetic predisposition of each separate patient.
This article focuses the attention on the basic exogenic and endogenic factors that affect the regulatory processes of the cellular cycle, apoptosis, immunosurveillance, and the human inflammasome in patients with nonmelanocytic skin tumors. These processes are interwoven in a complex network and are controlled by (1) the genome regulator p53, (2) its interaction with the proapoptotic acting proteins Bak and Bax, (3) as well as the interaction with the key regulatory protein of the inflammasome—ASC/TMS1.
As a process, the malignant transformation is exceptionally dynamic, plastic, and adaptive. The exterior “interferences”, on the part of the clinician, in the form of a planned therapy should be targeted at the simultaneous impact on the various pathogenetic chains with the objective of bringing the tumor cells to their total collapse. This can be made possible only after the careful and simultaneous—or parallel—examination of a much greater number of markers that serve to characterize the process of the malignant transformation—a fact, which is currently being disregarded by many researchers.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Nindl I, Rösl F. Molecular pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. The SCOPE Collaborative Group, editor. Skin cancer after organ transplantation. Cancer Treatment and Research 146. Springer; 2009. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-78574-5_18 Nindl I, Rösl F. Molecular pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. The SCOPE Collaborative Group, editor. Skin cancer after organ transplantation. Cancer Treatment and Research 146. Springer; 2009. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-78574-5_18
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Nindl I, Rösl F. Molecular concepts of virus infections causing skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:2199–204. PubMedCrossRef Nindl I, Rösl F. Molecular concepts of virus infections causing skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:2199–204. PubMedCrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Rodust PM, Stockfleth E, Ulrich C, Leverkus M, Eberle J. UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma—a role for antiapoptotic signalling pathways. Am J Dermatopathol. 2014. Epub ahead of print. Rodust PM, Stockfleth E, Ulrich C, Leverkus M, Eberle J. UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma—a role for antiapoptotic signalling pathways. Am J Dermatopathol. 2014. Epub ahead of print.
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Tchernev G, Nenoff P. Dissecting the pathways of tumor escape—question of life and death? An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85:248–59. PubMed Tchernev G, Nenoff P. Dissecting the pathways of tumor escape—question of life and death? An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85:248–59. PubMed
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Dupuy A, Valton J, Leduc S, Armier J, Galetto R, Gouble A, Lebuhotel C, Stary A, Pâques A, Duchateau P, Sarasin A, Daboussi F. Targeted gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum cells using meganuclease and TALEN TM. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78678. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Dupuy A, Valton J, Leduc S, Armier J, Galetto R, Gouble A, Lebuhotel C, Stary A, Pâques A, Duchateau P, Sarasin A, Daboussi F. Targeted gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum cells using meganuclease and TALEN TM. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78678. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Tchernev G. Apoptotic pathways, cell cycle regulation and cancer progression: review. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci. 2009;29:952–8. Tchernev G. Apoptotic pathways, cell cycle regulation and cancer progression: review. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci. 2009;29:952–8.
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Iftner T, Elbel M, Schopp B, et al. Interference of papillomavirus E6 protein with single-strand break repair by interaction with XRCC1. EMBO J. 2002;21:4741–8. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Iftner T, Elbel M, Schopp B, et al. Interference of papillomavirus E6 protein with single-strand break repair by interaction with XRCC1. EMBO J. 2002;21:4741–8. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Purdije KJ, Pennington J, Proby CM, et al. The promoter of a novel human papillomavirus (HPV77) associated with skin cancer displays UV responsiveness, which is mediated through a consensus p53 binding sequence. EMBO J. 1999;18:5359–69. CrossRef Purdije KJ, Pennington J, Proby CM, et al. The promoter of a novel human papillomavirus (HPV77) associated with skin cancer displays UV responsiveness, which is mediated through a consensus p53 binding sequence. EMBO J. 1999;18:5359–69. CrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Tchernev G, Orfanos CE. Downregulation of cell cycle modulators p21, p27, p53, Rb and proapoptotic Bcl/2 related proteins Bax and Bak in cutaneous melanoma is associated with worse patients prognosis: preliminary findings. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:247–56. PubMedCrossRef Tchernev G, Orfanos CE. Downregulation of cell cycle modulators p21, p27, p53, Rb and proapoptotic Bcl/2 related proteins Bax and Bak in cutaneous melanoma is associated with worse patients prognosis: preliminary findings. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:247–56. PubMedCrossRef
10.
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Varfolomeev E, Alicke B, Elliott JM, Zobel K, West K, Wong H, Scheer JM, Ashkenazi A, Gould SE, Fairbrother WJ, Vucic D. X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates cell death induction by proapoptotic receptor agonists. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34553–60. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Varfolomeev E, Alicke B, Elliott JM, Zobel K, West K, Wong H, Scheer JM, Ashkenazi A, Gould SE, Fairbrother WJ, Vucic D. X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates cell death induction by proapoptotic receptor agonists. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34553–60. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Tchernev G, Geilen CC, Zouboulis CC, Orfanos CE. p53—role in regulation in cell cycle and apoptosis in carcinomas and malignant melanoma. Curr Med (Bulgarian). 2005;36:47–54. Tchernev G, Geilen CC, Zouboulis CC, Orfanos CE. p53—role in regulation in cell cycle and apoptosis in carcinomas and malignant melanoma. Curr Med (Bulgarian). 2005;36:47–54.
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Ashkenazi A, Dixit VM. Death receptors: signaling and modulation. Science. 1998;281:1305–8. PubMedCrossRef Ashkenazi A, Dixit VM. Death receptors: signaling and modulation. Science. 1998;281:1305–8. PubMedCrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Cory S, Adams JM. The Bcl2 family: regulators of the cellular life-or-death switch. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2:647–56. PubMedCrossRef Cory S, Adams JM. The Bcl2 family: regulators of the cellular life-or-death switch. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2:647–56. PubMedCrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Kotzev A, Tchernev G, Tchernev K. Carcinogenesis. Curr Med (Bulgarian). 2006;57:51–62. Kotzev A, Tchernev G, Tchernev K. Carcinogenesis. Curr Med (Bulgarian). 2006;57:51–62.
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Ziegler A, Johnson AS, Leffel DJ, et al. Sunburn and p53 in the onset of skin cancer. Nature. 1994;372:773–6. PubMedCrossRef Ziegler A, Johnson AS, Leffel DJ, et al. Sunburn and p53 in the onset of skin cancer. Nature. 1994;372:773–6. PubMedCrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Ananthaswany HN, Pierceall WE. Molecular alterations in human skin tumors. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1992;376:61–84. Ananthaswany HN, Pierceall WE. Molecular alterations in human skin tumors. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1992;376:61–84.
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Popp S, Waltering S, Herbst C, et al. UVB-type mutations and chromosomal imbalances indicate common pathways for the development of Merkel and skin squamous cell carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2002;99:352–60. PubMedCrossRef Popp S, Waltering S, Herbst C, et al. UVB-type mutations and chromosomal imbalances indicate common pathways for the development of Merkel and skin squamous cell carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2002;99:352–60. PubMedCrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Boukamp P. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: what drives the tumor development and progression? Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1657–67. PubMedCrossRef Boukamp P. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: what drives the tumor development and progression? Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1657–67. PubMedCrossRef
20.
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Pierceall WE, Goldberg LH, Tainsky MA, et al. Ras gene mutation and amplification in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. Mol Carcinog. 1991;4:196–202. PubMedCrossRef Pierceall WE, Goldberg LH, Tainsky MA, et al. Ras gene mutation and amplification in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. Mol Carcinog. 1991;4:196–202. PubMedCrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Corominas M, Kamino H, Leon J, et al. Oncogene activation in human benign tumors of the skin (keratoakanthomas): is HRAS involved in differentiation as well as proliferation? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6372–6. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Corominas M, Kamino H, Leon J, et al. Oncogene activation in human benign tumors of the skin (keratoakanthomas): is HRAS involved in differentiation as well as proliferation? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6372–6. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Spencer JM, Kahn SM, Jiang W, et al. Activated ras genes occur in human actinic keratoses, premalignant precursors to squamous cell carcinomas. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:796–800. PubMedCrossRef Spencer JM, Kahn SM, Jiang W, et al. Activated ras genes occur in human actinic keratoses, premalignant precursors to squamous cell carcinomas. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:796–800. PubMedCrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Omran OM, Ata HS. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand death receptors DR4 and DR5 in human nonmelanoma skin cancer. Environ Toxicol. 2012;27:433–44. CrossRef Omran OM, Ata HS. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand death receptors DR4 and DR5 in human nonmelanoma skin cancer. Environ Toxicol. 2012;27:433–44. CrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Yoldas B, Ozer C, Ozen O, Canpolat T, Dogan I, Griffith TH, Sanlioglu S, Ozluoglu LN. Clinical significance of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors in patients with head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 2011;33:1278–84. PubMedCrossRef Yoldas B, Ozer C, Ozen O, Canpolat T, Dogan I, Griffith TH, Sanlioglu S, Ozluoglu LN. Clinical significance of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors in patients with head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 2011;33:1278–84. PubMedCrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Morales-Lara MJ, CanÈte JD, Torres-Moreno D, Hernández MV, Pedrero F, Celis R, Garcia-Simón MS, Conesa-Zamora P. Effects of polymorphisms in TRAILR1 and TRAILR1A on the responce to anti TNF therapies with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2012;79:591–6. PubMedCrossRef Morales-Lara MJ, CanÈte JD, Torres-Moreno D, Hernández MV, Pedrero F, Celis R, Garcia-Simón MS, Conesa-Zamora P. Effects of polymorphisms in TRAILR1 and TRAILR1A on the responce to anti TNF therapies with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2012;79:591–6. PubMedCrossRef
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Sisto M, D’Amore M, Caprio S, Mitolo V, Scagliusi P, Lisi S. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors block apoptosis of human epithelial cells of the salivary glands. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:407–14. PubMedCrossRef Sisto M, D’Amore M, Caprio S, Mitolo V, Scagliusi P, Lisi S. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors block apoptosis of human epithelial cells of the salivary glands. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:407–14. PubMedCrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Dunn GP, Bruce AT, Ikeda H, Old LJ, Schreiber RD. Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:991–8. PubMedCrossRef Dunn GP, Bruce AT, Ikeda H, Old LJ, Schreiber RD. Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:991–8. PubMedCrossRef
29.
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Kim R, Emi M, Tanabe K. Cancer immunoediting from immunsurveillance to immune escape. J Immunol. 2007;121:1–14. CrossRef Kim R, Emi M, Tanabe K. Cancer immunoediting from immunsurveillance to immune escape. J Immunol. 2007;121:1–14. CrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Dunn GP, Old LJ, Schreiber RD. The three ES of cancer immunoediting. Ann Rev Immunol. 2004;22:329–60. CrossRef Dunn GP, Old LJ, Schreiber RD. The three ES of cancer immunoediting. Ann Rev Immunol. 2004;22:329–60. CrossRef
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Beyaert R, Beaugerie L, Van Assche G, Brochez L, Renauld JC, Viguier M, Cocquyt V, Jerusalem G, Machiels JP, Prenen H, Masson P, Louis E, De Keyser F. Cancer risk in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). Mol Cancer. 2013;12:98. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Beyaert R, Beaugerie L, Van Assche G, Brochez L, Renauld JC, Viguier M, Cocquyt V, Jerusalem G, Machiels JP, Prenen H, Masson P, Louis E, De Keyser F. Cancer risk in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). Mol Cancer. 2013;12:98. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Ben-Neriah Y, Karin M. Inflammation meets cancer, with NF-kB as the matchmaker. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:715–23. PubMedCrossRef Ben-Neriah Y, Karin M. Inflammation meets cancer, with NF-kB as the matchmaker. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:715–23. PubMedCrossRef
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Barne PJ, Karin M. Nuclear factor kappa B: a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases. N Engl J Med. 1997;12:1066–71. Barne PJ, Karin M. Nuclear factor kappa B: a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases. N Engl J Med. 1997;12:1066–71.
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Hayden MS, Ghosh S. NF-kB, the first quarter century: remarkable progress and outstanding questions. Genes Dev. 2012;12:203–34. CrossRef Hayden MS, Ghosh S. NF-kB, the first quarter century: remarkable progress and outstanding questions. Genes Dev. 2012;12:203–34. CrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Askling J, Fored CM, Brandt L, Baecklund E, Bertilsson L, Brandt L, Backlin C, Ekbom A, Sundström C, Bertilsson L, Cöster L, Geborek P, Jacobsson LT, Lindblad S, Lysholm J, Rantapää-Dahlquist S, Saxne T, Klareskog L, Feltenius N. Haematopoietic malignancies in rheumatoid arthritis: lymphoma risk and characteristics after exposure to tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;12:1414–20. CrossRef Askling J, Fored CM, Brandt L, Baecklund E, Bertilsson L, Brandt L, Backlin C, Ekbom A, Sundström C, Bertilsson L, Cöster L, Geborek P, Jacobsson LT, Lindblad S, Lysholm J, Rantapää-Dahlquist S, Saxne T, Klareskog L, Feltenius N. Haematopoietic malignancies in rheumatoid arthritis: lymphoma risk and characteristics after exposure to tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;12:1414–20. CrossRef
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Karin M, Cao Y, Greten FR, Li Z-W. NF-kB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;12:301–10. CrossRef Karin M, Cao Y, Greten FR, Li Z-W. NF-kB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;12:301–10. CrossRef
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Salminen A, Kauppinen A, Hiltunen M, Kaarniranta K. Epigenetic regulation of ASC/TSM1 expression: potential role in apoptosis and inflammasome function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013. Epub ahead of print. Salminen A, Kauppinen A, Hiltunen M, Kaarniranta K. Epigenetic regulation of ASC/TSM1 expression: potential role in apoptosis and inflammasome function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013. Epub ahead of print.
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Murphy TM, Perry AS, Lawler M. The emergence of DNA methylation as a key modulator of aberrant cell death in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:11–25. PubMedCrossRef Murphy TM, Perry AS, Lawler M. The emergence of DNA methylation as a key modulator of aberrant cell death in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:11–25. PubMedCrossRef
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Sandur SK, Pandey MK, Sethi G. Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:1605–21. PubMedCrossRef Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Sandur SK, Pandey MK, Sethi G. Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:1605–21. PubMedCrossRef
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Masumoto J, Taniguchi S, Ayukawa K, Sarvotham H, Kishino T, Niikawa N, Hidaka E, Katsuyama T, Higuchi T, Sagara J. ASC, a novel 22-kDa, aggregates during apoptosis of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33835–8. PubMedCrossRef Masumoto J, Taniguchi S, Ayukawa K, Sarvotham H, Kishino T, Niikawa N, Hidaka E, Katsuyama T, Higuchi T, Sagara J. ASC, a novel 22-kDa, aggregates during apoptosis of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33835–8. PubMedCrossRef
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Conway KE, McConnell BB, Bowring CE, Donald CD, Warren ST, Vertino PM. TMS1, a novel proapoptotic caspase recruitment domain protein, is a target if methylation induced gene silencing in human breast cancers. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6236–42. PubMed Conway KE, McConnell BB, Bowring CE, Donald CD, Warren ST, Vertino PM. TMS1, a novel proapoptotic caspase recruitment domain protein, is a target if methylation induced gene silencing in human breast cancers. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6236–42. PubMed
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Virmani A, Rathi A, Sugio K, Sathyanarayana UG, Toyooka S, Kischel FC, Tonk V, Padar A, Takakashi T, Roth JA, Euhus DM, Minna JD, Cazdar AF. Aberrant methylation of TMS1 in small cell, non small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;106:198–204. PubMedCrossRef Virmani A, Rathi A, Sugio K, Sathyanarayana UG, Toyooka S, Kischel FC, Tonk V, Padar A, Takakashi T, Roth JA, Euhus DM, Minna JD, Cazdar AF. Aberrant methylation of TMS1 in small cell, non small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;106:198–204. PubMedCrossRef
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Guan X, Sagara J, Yokoyama T, Koganehira Y, Oguchi M, Saida T, Taniguchi S. ASC/TSM1, a caspase-1 activating adaptor, is downregulated by aberrant methylation in human melanoma. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:202–8. Guan X, Sagara J, Yokoyama T, Koganehira Y, Oguchi M, Saida T, Taniguchi S. ASC/TSM1, a caspase-1 activating adaptor, is downregulated by aberrant methylation in human melanoma. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:202–8.
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Collard RL, Harya NS, Monzon FA, Maier CE, O’Keefe DS. Methylation of the ASC gene promoter is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Prostate. 2006;66:687–95. Collard RL, Harya NS, Monzon FA, Maier CE, O’Keefe DS. Methylation of the ASC gene promoter is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Prostate. 2006;66:687–95.
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Das PM, Ramachandran K, Vanwert J, Ferdinand L, Copisetty G, Reis IM, Singal R. Methylation-mediated silencing of ASC/TSM1 gene in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer. 2006;5:28. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Das PM, Ramachandran K, Vanwert J, Ferdinand L, Copisetty G, Reis IM, Singal R. Methylation-mediated silencing of ASC/TSM1 gene in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer. 2006;5:28. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Stone AR, Bobo W, Brat DJ, Devi NS, Van Meir EG, Vertino PM. Aberrant methylation and downregulation of ASC/TSM1 in human glioblastoma. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:1151–61. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Stone AR, Bobo W, Brat DJ, Devi NS, Van Meir EG, Vertino PM. Aberrant methylation and downregulation of ASC/TSM1 in human glioblastoma. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:1151–61. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Martinez R, Schakert G, Esteller M. Hypermethylation of the proapoptotic gene TSM1/ASC: prognostic importance in glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 2007;82:133–9. PubMedCrossRef Martinez R, Schakert G, Esteller M. Hypermethylation of the proapoptotic gene TSM1/ASC: prognostic importance in glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 2007;82:133–9. PubMedCrossRef
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Grau E, Martinez F, Orellana C, Canete A, Yanez Y, Oltra S, Noguera R, Hernandez M, Bermudez JD, Castel V. Hypermethylation of apoptotic genes as independent prognostic factor in neuroblastoma disease. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:153–62. PubMedCrossRef Grau E, Martinez F, Orellana C, Canete A, Yanez Y, Oltra S, Noguera R, Hernandez M, Bermudez JD, Castel V. Hypermethylation of apoptotic genes as independent prognostic factor in neuroblastoma disease. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:153–62. PubMedCrossRef
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Levine JJ, Stimson-Crider KM, Vertino PM. Effects of methylation on expression of TMS1/ASC in human breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:3475–88. PubMedCrossRef Levine JJ, Stimson-Crider KM, Vertino PM. Effects of methylation on expression of TMS1/ASC in human breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:3475–88. PubMedCrossRef
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang C, Li H, Zhou G, Zhang Q, Zhang T, Li J, Liew CT, Yin D. Transcriptional silencing of the TMS1/ASC tumor suppressor gene by an epigenetic mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. J Pathol. 2007;212:134–42. PubMedCrossRef Zhang C, Li H, Zhou G, Zhang Q, Zhang T, Li J, Liew CT, Yin D. Transcriptional silencing of the TMS1/ASC tumor suppressor gene by an epigenetic mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. J Pathol. 2007;212:134–42. PubMedCrossRef
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang C, Bai J, Ren S, Wang R, Zhang L, Zuo Y. Sodium butyrate restores ASC expression and induces apoptosis in LS174T cells. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:1431–7. PubMed Zhang C, Bai J, Ren S, Wang R, Zhang L, Zuo Y. Sodium butyrate restores ASC expression and induces apoptosis in LS174T cells. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:1431–7. PubMed
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Ohtsuka T, Ryu H, Minamishima YA, Macip S, Sagara J, Nakayama KI, Aaronson SA, Lee SW. ASC is a Bax adaptor and regulates the p-53/Bax mitochnodrial apoptosis pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:121–8. PubMedCrossRef Ohtsuka T, Ryu H, Minamishima YA, Macip S, Sagara J, Nakayama KI, Aaronson SA, Lee SW. ASC is a Bax adaptor and regulates the p-53/Bax mitochnodrial apoptosis pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:121–8. PubMedCrossRef
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Hasegawa M, Kawase K, Inohara N, Imamura R, Yeh WC, Kinoshita T, Suda T. Mechanism of ASC-mediated apoptosis: bid dependent apoptosis in type II cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:1748–56. PubMedCrossRef Hasegawa M, Kawase K, Inohara N, Imamura R, Yeh WC, Kinoshita T, Suda T. Mechanism of ASC-mediated apoptosis: bid dependent apoptosis in type II cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:1748–56. PubMedCrossRef
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Kantari C, Walczak H. Caspase-8 and bid: caught in the act between death receptors and mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:558–63. PubMedCrossRef Kantari C, Walczak H. Caspase-8 and bid: caught in the act between death receptors and mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:558–63. PubMedCrossRef
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Motani K, Kawase K, Imamura R, Kinoshita T, Kushiyama H, Suda T. Activation of ASC induces apoptosis and necrosis, depending on the cell type, and causes tumor eradication. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1822–7. PubMedCrossRef Motani K, Kawase K, Imamura R, Kinoshita T, Kushiyama H, Suda T. Activation of ASC induces apoptosis and necrosis, depending on the cell type, and causes tumor eradication. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1822–7. PubMedCrossRef
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Drexler SK, Bonsignore L, Masin M, Tardivel A, Jackstadt R, Hermeking H, Schneider P, Gross O, Tschopp J, Yazdi AS. Tissue-specific opposing functions of the inflammasome adaptor ASC in the regulation of epithelial skin carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18384–9. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Drexler SK, Bonsignore L, Masin M, Tardivel A, Jackstadt R, Hermeking H, Schneider P, Gross O, Tschopp J, Yazdi AS. Tissue-specific opposing functions of the inflammasome adaptor ASC in the regulation of epithelial skin carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18384–9. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Ananiev J, Tchernev G. HPV-associated verrucous carcinoma of the perianal region—complete remission after surgical excision and postoperative monochemotherapy with methotrexat. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2012;51:54–7. Ananiev J, Tchernev G. HPV-associated verrucous carcinoma of the perianal region—complete remission after surgical excision and postoperative monochemotherapy with methotrexat. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2012;51:54–7.
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Sakai T, Tamura S, Miyoshi T, Nesumi N, Nagai K, Oshima K. Development of myeloid sarcoma after long-term methotrexate use for rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Hematol. 2014. Epub ahead of print. Sakai T, Tamura S, Miyoshi T, Nesumi N, Nagai K, Oshima K. Development of myeloid sarcoma after long-term methotrexate use for rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Hematol. 2014. Epub ahead of print.
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Saburi M, Itani K, Nagamatsu K, Miyazaki Y, Otsuka E, Urabe S, Saburi Y. Successful treatment with high-dose methotrexate/cytarabine regimen in a patient in SMILE regimen-resistant extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2014;55:120–4. PubMed Saburi M, Itani K, Nagamatsu K, Miyazaki Y, Otsuka E, Urabe S, Saburi Y. Successful treatment with high-dose methotrexate/cytarabine regimen in a patient in SMILE regimen-resistant extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2014;55:120–4. PubMed
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Galbiatti AL, Caldas HC, Padovani JA Jr, Pavarino EC, Goloni-Bertollo EM. Sensitivity of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 to metrotexate chemoterapy. Exp Oncol. 2012;34:367–9. PubMed Galbiatti AL, Caldas HC, Padovani JA Jr, Pavarino EC, Goloni-Bertollo EM. Sensitivity of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 to metrotexate chemoterapy. Exp Oncol. 2012;34:367–9. PubMed
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Liang XH, He YW, Tang YL, Wu JL, Cao XP, Xiao GZ, Mao ZY. Thermochemotherapy of lower lip squamous cell carcinoma without metastases: an experience of 31 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38:260–5. PubMedCrossRef Liang XH, He YW, Tang YL, Wu JL, Cao XP, Xiao GZ, Mao ZY. Thermochemotherapy of lower lip squamous cell carcinoma without metastases: an experience of 31 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38:260–5. PubMedCrossRef
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Sakoda T, Saitoh Y, Seno S, Ikeda H, Dake Y, Enomoto T, Kawano A, Kitano H. Combined MTX.5-FU.CDGP for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2003;30:641–5. PubMed Sakoda T, Saitoh Y, Seno S, Ikeda H, Dake Y, Enomoto T, Kawano A, Kitano H. Combined MTX.5-FU.CDGP for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2003;30:641–5. PubMed
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Lassman AB, Abrey LE, Shah GD, Panageas KS, Begemann M, Malkin MG, Raizer JJ. Systemic high-dose intravenous methotrexate for central nervous system metastases. J Neurooncol. 2006;7:255–60. CrossRef Lassman AB, Abrey LE, Shah GD, Panageas KS, Begemann M, Malkin MG, Raizer JJ. Systemic high-dose intravenous methotrexate for central nervous system metastases. J Neurooncol. 2006;7:255–60. CrossRef
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Mrass P, Rendl M, Mildner M, Gruber F, Lengauer B, Ballaun C, Eckhart L, Tschachler E. Retinoic acid increases the expression of p53 and proapoptotic caspases and sensitizes keratinocytes to apoptosis: a possible explanation for tumor preventive action of retinoids. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6542–8. PubMedCrossRef Mrass P, Rendl M, Mildner M, Gruber F, Lengauer B, Ballaun C, Eckhart L, Tschachler E. Retinoic acid increases the expression of p53 and proapoptotic caspases and sensitizes keratinocytes to apoptosis: a possible explanation for tumor preventive action of retinoids. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6542–8. PubMedCrossRef
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Xiaofang L, Kun T, Shaoping Y, Zaiqiu W, Hailong S. Correlation between promoter methylation of p14(ARF), TMS1/ASC, and DAPK, and p53 mutation with prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:5. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Xiaofang L, Kun T, Shaoping Y, Zaiqiu W, Hailong S. Correlation between promoter methylation of p14(ARF), TMS1/ASC, and DAPK, and p53 mutation with prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:5. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Tchernev G, Orfanos CE. Malignant melanoma-apoptosis and melanoma. Curr Med (Bulgarian). 2005;56:56–61. Tchernev G, Orfanos CE. Malignant melanoma-apoptosis and melanoma. Curr Med (Bulgarian). 2005;56:56–61.
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Campbell SB, Walker R, Tai SS, Jiang Q, Russ GR. Randomized controlled trial of sirolimus for renal transplant recipients at high risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:1146–56. PubMedCrossRef Campbell SB, Walker R, Tai SS, Jiang Q, Russ GR. Randomized controlled trial of sirolimus for renal transplant recipients at high risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:1146–56. PubMedCrossRef
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Naldi L. Malignancy concerns with psoriasis treatments using phototherapy, methotrexate, cyclosporin, and biologics: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:88–92. PubMedCrossRef Naldi L. Malignancy concerns with psoriasis treatments using phototherapy, methotrexate, cyclosporin, and biologics: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:88–92. PubMedCrossRef
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Wimmer CD, Angele MK, Schwarz B, Pratschke S, Rentsch M, Khandoga A, Guba M, Jauch KW, Bruns C, Graeb C. Impact of cyclosporine versus tacrolimus on the incidence of de novo malignancy following liver transplantation: a single center experience with 609 patients. Transpl Int. 2013;26:999–1006. PubMed Wimmer CD, Angele MK, Schwarz B, Pratschke S, Rentsch M, Khandoga A, Guba M, Jauch KW, Bruns C, Graeb C. Impact of cyclosporine versus tacrolimus on the incidence of de novo malignancy following liver transplantation: a single center experience with 609 patients. Transpl Int. 2013;26:999–1006. PubMed
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Targownik LE, Bernstein CN. Infectious and malignant complications of TNF inhibitor therapy in IBD. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:1835–42. PubMedCrossRef Targownik LE, Bernstein CN. Infectious and malignant complications of TNF inhibitor therapy in IBD. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:1835–42. PubMedCrossRef
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Semble AL, Davis SA, Feldman SR. Safety and tolerability of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in psoriasis: a narrative review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014;15:37–43. PubMedCrossRef Semble AL, Davis SA, Feldman SR. Safety and tolerability of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in psoriasis: a narrative review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014;15:37–43. PubMedCrossRef
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Le Blay P, Mouterde G, Barnetche T, Morel J, Combe B. Risk of malignancy including nonmelanoma skin cancers with antitumor necrosis factor therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of registries and systematic review of long-term extension studies. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:756–64. PubMed Le Blay P, Mouterde G, Barnetche T, Morel J, Combe B. Risk of malignancy including nonmelanoma skin cancers with antitumor necrosis factor therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of registries and systematic review of long-term extension studies. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:756–64. PubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Pathways of Tumor development and progression in Drug-induced Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: a New Hope or the Next Great Confusion?
verfasst von
MD Assoc. Prof. Georgi Tchernev
MD Prof. Uwe Wollina
Publikationsdatum
01.07.2014
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift / Ausgabe 13-14/2014
Print ISSN: 0043-5341
Elektronische ISSN: 1563-258X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10354-014-0271-3