The history of medical and veterinary mycology in general has been reviewed in the excellent monography by G.C. Ainsworth (1905–1998) published in 1986. Here, we will focus on German-speaking mycology and their outstanding personalities. We will start with the early years when medical mycology was in its infancy. Microscopy was a most valuable tool for the identification of fungi followed by cultivation and staining methods. Human pathologies became linked to fungi. After World War I, medical mycology flourished as an integral part of dermatology at universities and in private institutes. The development was interrupted by World War II, which divided Germany. In both parts of Germany, medical mycology had to be re-established. After re-unification the two different medical societies joined together. The development of DMyK (Deutschsprachigen Mykologischen Gesellschaft – Mykologie) is illustrated. Important personalities and some of their achievements are mentioned. Mycology has attracted other fields of medicine including internal medicine, pediatrics, microbiology, and veterinary medicine.