Further defining the optimal use of immune checkpoint inhibitors
As the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab is known to induce deep and durable responses in a subset of lung cancer patients, this agent was investigated in the neoadjuvant setting, which is an area of unmet need. There have been no advances in systemic treatment of resectable lung cancer since 2004. Chaft et al. hypothesised that neoadjuvant nivolumab treatment might induce immunity against micrometastases . Newly diagnosed patients with resectable stage I (> 2 cm)/II/IIIA NSCLC received two doses of nivolumab 3 mg/kg, on days 14 and 28, followed by surgical resection. In the post-operative setting, standard-of-care treatment was administered. Safety and feasibility constituted the primary endpoints of this study. Out of 22 patients enrolled, 21 received neoadjuvant treatment, and tumour resection was performed for 20, as one patient was nonresectable due to tracheal invasion.