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Muscle wasting and malnutrition are common complications in patients with advanced heart failure (HF); however, both remain underdiagnosed and undertreated although they both play relevant roles in the progression of HF. The risk of muscle wasting in patients with HF increases in those patients with malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition. Muscle wasting and malnutrition are thought to be positively influenced by adequate therapeutic interventions such as physical activity and nutritional support. Consequently, early detection of malnutrition in patients with HF is recommended. This review discusses muscle wasting and nutritional status, describing the effects of malnutrition on muscle wasting in patients with HF. We review specific issues related to muscle wasting and nutritional status in patients with HF; however, no established strategies currently exist to focus on patients suffering from muscle wasting with malnutrition.
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Muscle wasting in heart failure
The role of nutrition
PhD Masakazu Saitoh
PhD Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos
MD, PhD Stephan von Haehling
- Springer Vienna