All authors contribute on behalf of the Austrian Mesothelioma Interest Group (AMIG).
Treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) depends on performance status of the patient, tumor stage, and histological differentiation. Chemotherapy (CHT) can be administered as first- and second-line treatment in unresectable MPM or as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment before or after surgery. A combination of an antifolate and platinum-based CHT is the only approved standard of care. Several targeted and immunotherapies are in evaluation and further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic value of these new treatment options. Radiotherapy (RT) can be considered either as adjuvant treatment after surgery or for palliation of pain-related tumor growth. Recent data support the use of RT in a neoadjuvant setting. Macroscopic complete resection by pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) or extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is indicated in selected patients with good performance status. Surgery should only be applied as part of a multimodality treatment (MMT) in combination with chemo- and/or radiotherapy. In a large number of cases, palliative attempts are needed to improve quality of life and to achieve symptom control.