The recanalization success rate of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) can be increased by the retrograde approach; however, the long-term outcome of patients undergoing retrograde procedures is unknown.
We aimed to evaluate the long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) rate (e.g. death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery and stroke) in patients after retrograde versus antegrade CTO-PCI.
Methods and results
In a prospective single center study from January 2008 to June 2012, 396 consecutive patients with CTO (≥3 months old) were enrolled. The mean age was 63.4 ± 10.3 years and 86.4% were male. The success rate of the total patient cohort was 88.6%. The retrograde PCI, only attempted after a failed antegrade intervention, was performed in 18% (n = 71) of patients. Long-term MACCE rate (mean follow up 2.3 ± 1.6 years) was significantly higher in the unsuccessful compared to the successful CTO-PCI group (23.1% versus 9.4%, p = 0.01) and this was also the case in the subgroup of antegrade CTO-PCI. In the retrograde subgroup, however, procedural success had no impact on outcome. Patients with unsuccessful retrograde CTO-PCI had a significantly better collateral connection compared to patients with an unsuccessful antegrade approach. Independent predictors for MACCE were peripheral artery disease and an ejection fraction ≤30%.
The long-term MACCE rate after unsuccessful recanalization was significantly higher, which was driven by a higher MACCE rate after unsuccessful versus successful antegrade approaches. In contrast, procedural success in the retrograde group had no impact on outcome.