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One of the electrolyte disorders considered to be linked to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use is hypomagnesemia. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of hypomagnesemia linked to long-term PPI use and the correlation with active agents.
The study included 305 patients aged over 18 years with PPI use of 1 year or longer and attending the internal diseases clinic for any reason from April 2019 to December 2019. A survey study was performed about the demographic characteristics and PPI use of patients. Laboratory parameters, such as the hemogram, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and vitamin B12 concentrations were recorded. Magnesium concentrations were measured by a colorimetric method.
Of the patients 140 (45.9%) were female and 165 (54.1%) were male. The most commonly used PPI active agent was pantoprazole. The duration of PPI use varied from 1–25 years with a mean of 4.31 ± 4.52 years. Of the patients 51.5% reported no medication side effects. The most commonly observed side effect was constipation (n = 98, 32.1%). The mean magnesium concentration was 1.95 ± 0.02 mg/dL. Hypomagnesemia was identified in 65 (21.3%) patients and the incidence increased as age and duration of use increased. Patients using omeprazole had significantly lower magnesium levels compared to patients using pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole and lansoprazole.
In light of the data obtained it was concluded that hypomagnesemia linked to PPI use is associated with the type of PPI. While patients using rabeprazole had the lowest rates, those using omeprazole had significantly higher rates of hypomagnesemia. Additionally, there was a proportional correlation between age and duration of use with the risk of development of hypomagnesemia.