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Due to the overuse of antibiotics, infections, in particular those caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, are becoming more and more frequent. Despite the worldwide introduction of antibiotic therapy, vaccines and constant improvements in hygiene, the burden of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is increasing and is expected to rise in the future. The development of monoclonal therapeutic antibodies and specific immunomodulatory drugs represent new treatment options in the fight against infectious diseases. This article provides a brief overview of recent advances in immunomodulatory therapy and other strategies in the treatment of infectious disease.