Human dirofilariosis is currently considered to be an emerging zoonosis of Central Europe with climate change and globalization playing a key role in its spreading. Additionally, the occurrence of Dirofilaria spp. is strongly subject to a certain number of microfilaremic dogs and the presence of the mosquito vectors. Both conditions are fulfilled in Slovakia. The first human case of autochthonous dirofilariosis in Slovakia was diagnosed in 2007, 2 years after the infection had been observed in the Slovak dog population. Since then, a total of 12 human cases caused by Dirofilaria repens have been registered at the Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 7 subcutaneous, 4 ocular and 1 pulmonary; however, it is likely that some cases remain undiagnosed, seeing that this infection is still missed by physicians. Of the patients 9 were male and 3 were female and their age varied between 15 and 72 years (mean 49 years). The majority of those affected came from the southern regions of the country, bordering Austria and Hungary, which are considered to be endemic areas for canine dirofilariosis. In this paper all published and unpublished cases are reviewed, with a special emphasis on the rare pulmonary form of D. repens infection.