Venous thromboembolism is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the subsequently indicated anticoagulation treatment puts the patient at risk of possible bleeding complications. Therefore, improving treatment strategies as well as diagnostic approaches can optimize patient care. During the 55th Annual Meeting 2013 of the American Society of Hematology the Choosing Wisely® campaign was presented. An expert committee recommends against the test for thrombophilia after venous thromboembolism occurring in the setting of major transient risk factors to avoid over treatment in these patients. Other presentations focused on the use of the direct oral anticoagulants in patients with cancer-associated thromboembolism. However, specific studies comparing direct oral anticoagulants with the state-of the art treatment with low molecular heparins in cancer-associated thromboembolism are still missing. Finally, age-adjusted cut-off levels can increase the specificity of D-Dimer in older patients. Consequently, using clinical probability assessment in the combination with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off levels may be associated with a larger number of patients in whom pulmonary embolism can be ruled out.