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Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is a frequent disorder of the thyroid gland caused by autoimmune-trigged lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the thyroid gland. With the progressive destruction of the organ, the thyroid gland shrinks in size, thus commonly leading to hypothyroidism. Therapy of HT is mainly focused on managing the thyroid dysfunction by oral substitution of L‑thyroxine. However, patients with HT often complain about a broad spectrum of symptoms, with some of them hardly explained by HT itself. Several other disorders are known to be associated with HT. The etiology of HT seems to be multifactorial, including environmental influences such as iodine supply, infections, and stress as triggers of immune modulation. In addition, also a genetic background based on changes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) status seems to be evident. The paper will provide an overview of diseases related to HT, including their correlation to certain HLA patterns. This presentation should give a broader view on HT-related disorders and facilitate detailed examination and management of patients with HT.