Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: neuropsychiatrie 2/2022

11.02.2022 | review

Global prevalence of anxiety and PTSD in immigrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis

verfasst von: Sohrab Amiri

Erschienen in: neuropsychiatrie | Ausgabe 2/2022

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Summary

Background

A systematic and meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in immigrants was conducted.

Methods

Based on the keywords, scientific databases were systematically searched to identify articles. The search included the three databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Research Gate until June 2020. The analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD; subgroups were examined based on anxiety disorders.

Results

The prevalence of agoraphobia, PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia and specific phobia were 4, 25, 9, 4, 3, 5 and 8%, respectively.

Conclusions

Considering the findings of the present study regarding the significant prevalence of anxiety and PTSD in the immigrant population, it is necessary to pay special attention to the mental health of this population.
Anhänge
Nur mit Berechtigung zugänglich
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Remes O, Brayne C, Lafortune L. The prevalence of anxiety disorders across the life course: a systematic review of reviews. Lancet. 2014;384:S66. CrossRef Remes O, Brayne C, Lafortune L. The prevalence of anxiety disorders across the life course: a systematic review of reviews. Lancet. 2014;384:S66. CrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Kessler RC, Ruscio AM, Shear K, Wittchen HU. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:21–35. PubMedCrossRef Kessler RC, Ruscio AM, Shear K, Wittchen HU. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:21–35. PubMedCrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Baxter AJ, Scott KM, Vos T, Whiteford HA. Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychol Med. 2013;43(5):897–910. PubMedCrossRef Baxter AJ, Scott KM, Vos T, Whiteford HA. Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychol Med. 2013;43(5):897–910. PubMedCrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Murray CJL, Lopez AD, World Health O, World B, Harvard School of Public Health. Global health statistics : a compendium of incidence, prevalence and mortality estimates for over 200 conditions/Christopher J. L. Murray, Alan D. Lopez. 1996. Murray CJL, Lopez AD, World Health O, World B, Harvard School of Public Health. Global health statistics : a compendium of incidence, prevalence and mortality estimates for over 200 conditions/Christopher J. L. Murray, Alan D. Lopez. 1996.
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Rafsten L, Danielsson A, Sunnerhagen KS. Anxiety after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2018;50(9):769–78. PubMedCrossRef Rafsten L, Danielsson A, Sunnerhagen KS. Anxiety after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2018;50(9):769–78. PubMedCrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Lindert J, Ehrenstein OS, Priebe S, Mielck A, Brähler E. Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(2):246–57. PubMedCrossRef Lindert J, Ehrenstein OS, Priebe S, Mielck A, Brähler E. Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(2):246–57. PubMedCrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Ilić B, Švab V, Sedić B, Kovačević I, Friganović A, Jurić E. Mental health in domesticated immigrant population—a systematic review. Psychiat Danub. 2017;29(3):273–81. CrossRef Ilić B, Švab V, Sedić B, Kovačević I, Friganović A, Jurić E. Mental health in domesticated immigrant population—a systematic review. Psychiat Danub. 2017;29(3):273–81. CrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Held D, et al. Global transformations: politics, economics and culture. Cambridge: Polity; 1999. Held D, et al. Global transformations: politics, economics and culture. Cambridge: Polity; 1999.
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Castles S. International migration at the beginning of the twenty-first century: global trends and issues. Int Soc Sci J. 2018;68(227):151–62. CrossRef Castles S. International migration at the beginning of the twenty-first century: global trends and issues. Int Soc Sci J. 2018;68(227):151–62. CrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. International migration report 2006. New York: UN; 2009. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. International migration report 2006. New York: UN; 2009.
13.
Zurück zum Zitat IOfM. World migration report 2011. Geneva: International Organization for Migration; 2011. IOfM. World migration report 2011. Geneva: International Organization for Migration; 2011.
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Lindert J, Schouler-Ocak M, Heinz A, Priebe S. Mental health, health care utilisation of migrants in Europe. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23(1):14–20. PubMedCrossRef Lindert J, Schouler-Ocak M, Heinz A, Priebe S. Mental health, health care utilisation of migrants in Europe. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23(1):14–20. PubMedCrossRef
16.
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Blackmore R, Gray KM, Boyle JA, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis: the prevalence of mental illness in child and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;59(6):705–14. PubMedCrossRef Blackmore R, Gray KM, Boyle JA, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis: the prevalence of mental illness in child and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;59(6):705–14. PubMedCrossRef
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Anderson FM, Hatch SL, Comacchio C, Howard LM. Prevalence and risk of mental disorders in the perinatal period among migrant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017;20(3):449–62. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Anderson FM, Hatch SL, Comacchio C, Howard LM. Prevalence and risk of mental disorders in the perinatal period among migrant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017;20(3):449–62. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Kien C, Sommer I, Faustmann A, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders in young refugees and asylum seekers in European countries: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019;28(10):1295–310. PubMedCrossRef Kien C, Sommer I, Faustmann A, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders in young refugees and asylum seekers in European countries: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019;28(10):1295–310. PubMedCrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Foo SQ, Tam WW, Ho CS, et al. Prevalence of depression among migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(9):1986. PubMedCentralCrossRef Foo SQ, Tam WW, Ho CS, et al. Prevalence of depression among migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(9):1986. PubMedCentralCrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Edwards J, Hu M, Thind A, Stranges S, Chiu M, Anderson KK. Gaps in understanding of the epidemiology of mood and anxiety disorders among migrant groups in Canada: a systematic review. Can J Psychiatry. 2019;64(9):595–606. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Edwards J, Hu M, Thind A, Stranges S, Chiu M, Anderson KK. Gaps in understanding of the epidemiology of mood and anxiety disorders among migrant groups in Canada: a systematic review. Can J Psychiatry. 2019;64(9):595–606. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Mindlis I, Boffetta P. Mood disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017;210(3):182–9. PubMedCrossRef Mindlis I, Boffetta P. Mood disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017;210(3):182–9. PubMedCrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Bourque F, van der Ven E, Malla A. A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants. Psychol Med. 2011;41(5):897–910. PubMedCrossRef Bourque F, van der Ven E, Malla A. A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants. Psychol Med. 2011;41(5):897–910. PubMedCrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Fazel M, Wheeler J, Danesh J. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet. 2005;365(9467):1309–14. PubMedCrossRef Fazel M, Wheeler J, Danesh J. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet. 2005;365(9467):1309–14. PubMedCrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Amiri S. Worldwide prevalence of smoking in immigration: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. J Addict Dis. 2020;38(4):567–79. PubMedCrossRef Amiri S. Worldwide prevalence of smoking in immigration: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. J Addict Dis. 2020;38(4):567–79. PubMedCrossRef
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Armijo-Olivo S, Stiles CR, Hagen NA, Biondo PD, Cummings GG. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool and the effective public health practice project quality assessment tool: methodological research. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012;18(1):12–8. PubMedCrossRef Armijo-Olivo S, Stiles CR, Hagen NA, Biondo PD, Cummings GG. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool and the effective public health practice project quality assessment tool: methodological research. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012;18(1):12–8. PubMedCrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Thomas H. Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies. Effective public health practice project. 2003. Thomas H. Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies. Effective public health practice project. 2003.
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2002;21(11):1539–58. PubMedCrossRef Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2002;21(11):1539–58. PubMedCrossRef
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Aglipay M, Colman I, Chen Y. Does the healthy immigrant effect extend to anxiety disorders? Evidence from a nationally representative study. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013;15(5):851–7. PubMedCrossRef Aglipay M, Colman I, Chen Y. Does the healthy immigrant effect extend to anxiety disorders? Evidence from a nationally representative study. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013;15(5):851–7. PubMedCrossRef
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Alegria M, Canino G, Shrout P, et al. Prevalence of mental illness in immigrant and non-immigrant U.S. Latino groups. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:359–69. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Alegria M, Canino G, Shrout P, et al. Prevalence of mental illness in immigrant and non-immigrant U.S. Latino groups. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:359–69. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Alexander B, David E, Grills N. High prevalence of anxiety disorders among adolescent Tibetan refugees. Asian J Psychiatry. 2013;6(3):218–21. CrossRef Alexander B, David E, Grills N. High prevalence of anxiety disorders among adolescent Tibetan refugees. Asian J Psychiatry. 2013;6(3):218–21. CrossRef
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Allden K, Poole C, Chantavanich S, Ohmar K, Aung NN, Mollica RF. Burmese political dissidents in Thailand: trauma and survival among young adults in exile. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1561–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Allden K, Poole C, Chantavanich S, Ohmar K, Aung NN, Mollica RF. Burmese political dissidents in Thailand: trauma and survival among young adults in exile. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1561–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Alpak G, Unal A, Bulbul F, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2015;19(1):45–50. PubMedCrossRef Alpak G, Unal A, Bulbul F, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2015;19(1):45–50. PubMedCrossRef
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Beutel M, Jünger C, Klein E, et al. Depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among 1st and 2nd generation migrants—results from the Gutenberg health study. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:288. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Beutel M, Jünger C, Klein E, et al. Depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among 1st and 2nd generation migrants—results from the Gutenberg health study. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:288. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhui K, Craig T, Mohamud S, et al. Mental disorders among Somali refugees: developing culturally appropriate measures and assessing socio-cultural risk factors. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:400–8. PubMedCrossRef Bhui K, Craig T, Mohamud S, et al. Mental disorders among Somali refugees: developing culturally appropriate measures and assessing socio-cultural risk factors. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:400–8. PubMedCrossRef
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Blair R. Risk factors associated with Ptsd and major depression among Cambodian refugees in utah. Health Soc Work. 2000;25:23–30. PubMedCrossRef Blair R. Risk factors associated with Ptsd and major depression among Cambodian refugees in utah. Health Soc Work. 2000;25:23–30. PubMedCrossRef
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Bogic M, Ajdukovic D, Bremner S, et al. Factors associated with mental disorders in long-settled war refugees: refugees from the former Yugoslavia in Germany, Italy and the UK. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;200(3):216–23. PubMedCrossRef Bogic M, Ajdukovic D, Bremner S, et al. Factors associated with mental disorders in long-settled war refugees: refugees from the former Yugoslavia in Germany, Italy and the UK. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;200(3):216–23. PubMedCrossRef
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Brink DR, Shannon PJ, Vinson GA. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care. Fam Pract. 2015;33(1):107–11. PubMedCrossRef Brink DR, Shannon PJ, Vinson GA. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care. Fam Pract. 2015;33(1):107–11. PubMedCrossRef
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Carta M, Kovess V, Hardoy M, Morosini PL, Murgia S, Carpiniello B. Psychiatric disorders in Sardinian immigrants to Paris: a comparison with parisians and sardinians resident in Sardinia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2002;37:112–7. PubMedCrossRef Carta M, Kovess V, Hardoy M, Morosini PL, Murgia S, Carpiniello B. Psychiatric disorders in Sardinian immigrants to Paris: a comparison with parisians and sardinians resident in Sardinia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2002;37:112–7. PubMedCrossRef
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Carta M, Sancassiani F. A follow-up on psychiatric symptoms and post traumatic stress disorders in Tuareg refugees in Burkina Faso. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:127. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Carta M, Sancassiani F. A follow-up on psychiatric symptoms and post traumatic stress disorders in Tuareg refugees in Burkina Faso. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:127. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Chen W, Hall BJ, Ling L, Renzaho AM. Pre-migration and post-migration factors associated with mental health in humanitarian migrants in Australia and the moderation effect of post-migration stressors: findings from the first wave data of the BNLA cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017;4(3):218–29. PubMedCrossRef Chen W, Hall BJ, Ling L, Renzaho AM. Pre-migration and post-migration factors associated with mental health in humanitarian migrants in Australia and the moderation effect of post-migration stressors: findings from the first wave data of the BNLA cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017;4(3):218–29. PubMedCrossRef
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheung P. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Cambodian refugees in New Zealand. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1994;40(1):17–26. PubMedCrossRef Cheung P. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Cambodian refugees in New Zealand. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1994;40(1):17–26. PubMedCrossRef
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Chung MC, AlQarni N, Almazrouei M, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees of different ages: the role of trauma centrality. Psychiatr Q. 2018;89:909–21. PubMedCrossRef Chung MC, AlQarni N, Almazrouei M, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees of different ages: the role of trauma centrality. Psychiatr Q. 2018;89:909–21. PubMedCrossRef
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Cleveland J, Rousseau C. Psychiatric symptoms associated with brief detention of adult asylum seekers in Canada. Can J Psychiatry. 2013;58(7):409–16. PubMedCrossRef Cleveland J, Rousseau C. Psychiatric symptoms associated with brief detention of adult asylum seekers in Canada. Can J Psychiatry. 2013;58(7):409–16. PubMedCrossRef
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Davison K, Lin S, Tong H, Kobayashi K, Mora-Almanza J, Fuller-Thomson E. Nutritional factors, physical health and immigrant status are associated with anxiety disorders among middle-aged and older adults: findings from baseline data of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:1493. PubMedCentralCrossRef Davison K, Lin S, Tong H, Kobayashi K, Mora-Almanza J, Fuller-Thomson E. Nutritional factors, physical health and immigrant status are associated with anxiety disorders among middle-aged and older adults: findings from baseline data of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:1493. PubMedCentralCrossRef
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Di Thiene D, Rahman S, Helgesson M, et al. Healthcare use among immigrants and natives in Sweden on disability pension, before and after changes of regulations. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(3):445–51. PubMedCrossRef Di Thiene D, Rahman S, Helgesson M, et al. Healthcare use among immigrants and natives in Sweden on disability pension, before and after changes of regulations. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(3):445–51. PubMedCrossRef
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Dietrich H, Al Ali R, Tagay S, Hebebrand J, Reissner V. Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in young adult refugees from Syria and Iraq. Compr Psychiatry. 2019;90:73–81. PubMedCrossRef Dietrich H, Al Ali R, Tagay S, Hebebrand J, Reissner V. Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in young adult refugees from Syria and Iraq. Compr Psychiatry. 2019;90:73–81. PubMedCrossRef
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Dingoyan D, Schulz H, Kluge U, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders among first and second generation individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds in Germany. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):177. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Dingoyan D, Schulz H, Kluge U, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders among first and second generation individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds in Germany. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):177. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Fuhr DC, Acarturk C, McGrath M, et al. Treatment gap and mental health service use among Syrian refugees in Sultanbeyli, Istanbul: a cross-sectional survey. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020;29:e70. CrossRef Fuhr DC, Acarturk C, McGrath M, et al. Treatment gap and mental health service use among Syrian refugees in Sultanbeyli, Istanbul: a cross-sectional survey. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020;29:e70. CrossRef
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Garcini L, Peña J, Galvan T, Fagundes C, Malcarne V, Klonoff E. Mental disorders among undocumented Mexican immigrants in high-risk neighborhoods: prevalence, comorbidity, and vulnerabilities. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017;85:927–36. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Garcini L, Peña J, Galvan T, Fagundes C, Malcarne V, Klonoff E. Mental disorders among undocumented Mexican immigrants in high-risk neighborhoods: prevalence, comorbidity, and vulnerabilities. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017;85:927–36. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Gerritsen A, Bramsen I, Deville W, Willigen L, Hovens J, Ploeg H. Physical and mental health of Afghan, Iranian and Somali asylum seekers and refugees living in the Netherlands. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:18–26. PubMedCrossRef Gerritsen A, Bramsen I, Deville W, Willigen L, Hovens J, Ploeg H. Physical and mental health of Afghan, Iranian and Somali asylum seekers and refugees living in the Netherlands. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:18–26. PubMedCrossRef
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Heeren M, Wittmann L, Ehlert U, Schnyder U, Maier T, Müller J. Psychopathology and resident status—comparing asylum seekers, refugees, illegal migrants, labor migrants, and residents. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(4):818–25. PubMedCrossRef Heeren M, Wittmann L, Ehlert U, Schnyder U, Maier T, Müller J. Psychopathology and resident status—comparing asylum seekers, refugees, illegal migrants, labor migrants, and residents. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(4):818–25. PubMedCrossRef
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Jamil H, Nassar-McMillan S, Lambert R. Immigration and attendant psychological sequelae: a comparison of three waves of Iraqi immigrants. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2007;77:199–205. PubMedCrossRef Jamil H, Nassar-McMillan S, Lambert R. Immigration and attendant psychological sequelae: a comparison of three waves of Iraqi immigrants. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2007;77:199–205. PubMedCrossRef
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Javanbakht A, Amirsadri A, Abu Suhaiban H, et al. Prevalence of possible mental disorders in Syrian refugees resettling in the United States screened at primary care. J Immigr Minor Health. 2019;21(3):664–7. PubMedCrossRef Javanbakht A, Amirsadri A, Abu Suhaiban H, et al. Prevalence of possible mental disorders in Syrian refugees resettling in the United States screened at primary care. J Immigr Minor Health. 2019;21(3):664–7. PubMedCrossRef
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Kang S, Razzouk D, Mari JJ, Shirakawa I. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25:819–26. PubMedCrossRef Kang S, Razzouk D, Mari JJ, Shirakawa I. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25:819–26. PubMedCrossRef
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Karno M, Golding JM, Burnam MA, et al. Anxiety disorders among Mexican Americans and non-hispanic whites in Los Angeles. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1989;177(4):202–9. PubMedCrossRef Karno M, Golding JM, Burnam MA, et al. Anxiety disorders among Mexican Americans and non-hispanic whites in Los Angeles. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1989;177(4):202–9. PubMedCrossRef
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Karunakara UK, Neuner F, Schauer M, et al. Traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder amongst Sudanese nationals, refugees and Ugandans in the West Nile. Afr Health Sci. 2004;4(2):83–93. PubMedPubMedCentral Karunakara UK, Neuner F, Schauer M, et al. Traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder amongst Sudanese nationals, refugees and Ugandans in the West Nile. Afr Health Sci. 2004;4(2):83–93. PubMedPubMedCentral
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Kazour F, Zahreddine NR, Maragel MG, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Compr Psychiatry. 2017;72:41–7. PubMedCrossRef Kazour F, Zahreddine NR, Maragel MG, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Compr Psychiatry. 2017;72:41–7. PubMedCrossRef
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Koh E. Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among Korean Americans. Soc Work Public Health. 2018;33(1):55–69. PubMedCrossRef Koh E. Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among Korean Americans. Soc Work Public Health. 2018;33(1):55–69. PubMedCrossRef
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Kroll J, Habenicht M, Mackenzie T, et al. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in Southeast Asian refugees. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:1592–7. PubMedCrossRef Kroll J, Habenicht M, Mackenzie T, et al. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in Southeast Asian refugees. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:1592–7. PubMedCrossRef
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Laban C, Gernaat H, Komproe I, Schreuders B, Jong J. Impact of a long asylum procedure on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;192:843–51. CrossRef Laban C, Gernaat H, Komproe I, Schreuders B, Jong J. Impact of a long asylum procedure on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;192:843–51. CrossRef
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee Y, Lee MK, Chun KH, Lee YK, Yoon SJ. Trauma experience of North Korean refugees in China. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(3):225–9. PubMedCrossRef Lee Y, Lee MK, Chun KH, Lee YK, Yoon SJ. Trauma experience of North Korean refugees in China. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(3):225–9. PubMedCrossRef
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Levecque K, Lodewyckx I, Vranken J. Depression and generalised anxiety in the general population in Belgium: a comparison between native and immigrant groups. J Affect Disord. 2007;97:229–39. PubMedCrossRef Levecque K, Lodewyckx I, Vranken J. Depression and generalised anxiety in the general population in Belgium: a comparison between native and immigrant groups. J Affect Disord. 2007;97:229–39. PubMedCrossRef
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Liddell B, Nickerson A, Sartor L, Ivancic L, Bryant R. The generational gap: mental disorder prevalence and disability amongst first and second generation immigrants in Australia. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;83:103–11. PubMedCrossRef Liddell B, Nickerson A, Sartor L, Ivancic L, Bryant R. The generational gap: mental disorder prevalence and disability amongst first and second generation immigrants in Australia. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;83:103–11. PubMedCrossRef
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Lies J, Mellor A, Jobson L, Drummond SPA. Prevalence of sleep disturbance and its relationships with mental health and psychosocial issues in refugees and asylum seekers attending psychological services in Australia. Sleep Health. 2019;5(4):335–43. PubMedCrossRef Lies J, Mellor A, Jobson L, Drummond SPA. Prevalence of sleep disturbance and its relationships with mental health and psychosocial issues in refugees and asylum seekers attending psychological services in Australia. Sleep Health. 2019;5(4):335–43. PubMedCrossRef
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Lucia A, Pollice A, De Nicolò C. General health, psychological well-being and distress of youth immigrants in Italy. Coll Antropol (Online). 2010;34:1193–205. Lucia A, Pollice A, De Nicolò C. General health, psychological well-being and distress of youth immigrants in Italy. Coll Antropol (Online). 2010;34:1193–205.
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Marshall GN, Schell TL, Elliott MN, Berthold SM, Chun C‑A. Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. JAMA. 2005;294(5):571–9. PubMedCrossRef Marshall GN, Schell TL, Elliott MN, Berthold SM, Chun C‑A. Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. JAMA. 2005;294(5):571–9. PubMedCrossRef
76.
Zurück zum Zitat McColl H, Johnson S. Characteristics and needs of asylum seekers and refugees in contact with London community mental health teams: a descriptive investigation. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:789–95. PubMedCrossRef McColl H, Johnson S. Characteristics and needs of asylum seekers and refugees in contact with London community mental health teams: a descriptive investigation. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:789–95. PubMedCrossRef
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Mollica RF, Caridad KR, Massagli MP. Longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and changes in traumatic memories over time in Bosnian refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(7):572–9. PubMedCrossRef Mollica RF, Caridad KR, Massagli MP. Longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and changes in traumatic memories over time in Bosnian refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(7):572–9. PubMedCrossRef
78.
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Mulugeta W, Xue H, Glick M, Min J, Noe MF, Wang Y. Burden of mental illness and non-communicable diseases and risk factors for mental illness among refugees in Buffalo, NY, 2004–2014. J Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 2019;6(1):56–63. CrossRef Mulugeta W, Xue H, Glick M, Min J, Noe MF, Wang Y. Burden of mental illness and non-communicable diseases and risk factors for mental illness among refugees in Buffalo, NY, 2004–2014. J Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 2019;6(1):56–63. CrossRef
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Nesterko Y, Jäckle D, Friedrich M, Holzapfel L, Glaesmer H. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and somatisation in recently arrived refugees in Germany: an epidemiological study. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020;29:e40. CrossRef Nesterko Y, Jäckle D, Friedrich M, Holzapfel L, Glaesmer H. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and somatisation in recently arrived refugees in Germany: an epidemiological study. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020;29:e40. CrossRef
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Ommeren M, Komproe I, Cardeña E, et al. Mental illness among bhutanese shamans in Nepal. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192:313–7. PubMedCrossRef Ommeren M, Komproe I, Cardeña E, et al. Mental illness among bhutanese shamans in Nepal. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192:313–7. PubMedCrossRef
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Orozco R, Borges G, Medina-Mora M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Breslau J. A cross-national study on prevalence of mental disorders, service use, and adequacy of treatment among Mexican and Mexican American populations. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(9):1610–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Orozco R, Borges G, Medina-Mora M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Breslau J. A cross-national study on prevalence of mental disorders, service use, and adequacy of treatment among Mexican and Mexican American populations. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(9):1610–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Pernice R, Brook J. Relationship of migrant status (refugee or immigrant) to mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1994;40(3):177–88. PubMedCrossRef Pernice R, Brook J. Relationship of migrant status (refugee or immigrant) to mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1994;40(3):177–88. PubMedCrossRef
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Ponizovsky A, Grinshpoon A. Mood and anxiety disorders and the use of services and psychotropic medication in an immigrant population: findings from the Israel national health survey. Can J Psychiatry. 2009;54:409–19. PubMedCrossRef Ponizovsky A, Grinshpoon A. Mood and anxiety disorders and the use of services and psychotropic medication in an immigrant population: findings from the Israel national health survey. Can J Psychiatry. 2009;54:409–19. PubMedCrossRef
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Poudel-Tandukar K, Chandler GE, Jacelon CS, Gautam B, Bertone-Johnson ER, Hollon SD. Resilience and anxiety or depression among resettled Bhutanese adults in the United States. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2019;65(6):496–506. PubMedCrossRef Poudel-Tandukar K, Chandler GE, Jacelon CS, Gautam B, Bertone-Johnson ER, Hollon SD. Resilience and anxiety or depression among resettled Bhutanese adults in the United States. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2019;65(6):496–506. PubMedCrossRef
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Qureshi A, Collazos F, Sobradiel N, et al. Epidemiology of psychiatric morbidity among migrants compared to native born population in Spain: a controlled study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012;35(1):93–9. PubMedCrossRef Qureshi A, Collazos F, Sobradiel N, et al. Epidemiology of psychiatric morbidity among migrants compared to native born population in Spain: a controlled study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012;35(1):93–9. PubMedCrossRef
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Sabin M, Lopes Cardozo B, Nackerud L, Kaiser R, Varese L. Factors associated with poor mental health among Guatemalan refugees living in Mexico 20 years after civil conflict. JAMA. 2003;290(5):635–42. PubMedCrossRef Sabin M, Lopes Cardozo B, Nackerud L, Kaiser R, Varese L. Factors associated with poor mental health among Guatemalan refugees living in Mexico 20 years after civil conflict. JAMA. 2003;290(5):635–42. PubMedCrossRef
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Salas-Wright CP, Vaughn MG, Goings TC, Miller DP, Schwartz SJ. Immigrants and mental disorders in the United States: new evidence on the healthy migrant hypothesis. Psychiatry Res. 2018;267:438–45. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Salas-Wright CP, Vaughn MG, Goings TC, Miller DP, Schwartz SJ. Immigrants and mental disorders in the United States: new evidence on the healthy migrant hypothesis. Psychiatry Res. 2018;267:438–45. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Salinero-Fort MA, Jiménez-García R, de Burgos-Lunar C, Chico-Moraleja RM, Gómez-Campelo P. Common mental disorders in primary health care: differences between latin American-born and Spanish-born residents in Madrid, Spain. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015;50(3):429–43. PubMedCrossRef Salinero-Fort MA, Jiménez-García R, de Burgos-Lunar C, Chico-Moraleja RM, Gómez-Campelo P. Common mental disorders in primary health care: differences between latin American-born and Spanish-born residents in Madrid, Spain. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015;50(3):429–43. PubMedCrossRef
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Sánchez M, Cardemil E, Adams ST, et al. Brave new world: mental health experiences of Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians in Massachusetts. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2014;20(1):16–26. PubMedCrossRef Sánchez M, Cardemil E, Adams ST, et al. Brave new world: mental health experiences of Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians in Massachusetts. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2014;20(1):16–26. PubMedCrossRef
93.
Zurück zum Zitat Schrier A, de Wit M, Coupe V, et al. Comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders: a comparative population study in western and non-western inhabitants in the Netherlands. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2011;58:186–94. PubMedCrossRef Schrier A, de Wit M, Coupe V, et al. Comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders: a comparative population study in western and non-western inhabitants in the Netherlands. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2011;58:186–94. PubMedCrossRef
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Segal SP, Khoury VC, Salah R, Ghannam J. Contributors to screening positive for mental illness in Lebanon’s Shatila Palestinian refugee camp. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2018;206(1):46–51. PubMedCrossRef Segal SP, Khoury VC, Salah R, Ghannam J. Contributors to screening positive for mental illness in Lebanon’s Shatila Palestinian refugee camp. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2018;206(1):46–51. PubMedCrossRef
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Siddiqui F, Lindblad U, Bennet L. Physical inactivity is strongly associated with anxiety and depression in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):502. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Siddiqui F, Lindblad U, Bennet L. Physical inactivity is strongly associated with anxiety and depression in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):502. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Silove D, Steel Z, Bauman A, Chey T, McFarlane A. Trauma, PTSD and the longer-term mental health burden amongst Vietnamese refugees. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42(6):467–76. PubMedCrossRef Silove D, Steel Z, Bauman A, Chey T, McFarlane A. Trauma, PTSD and the longer-term mental health burden amongst Vietnamese refugees. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42(6):467–76. PubMedCrossRef
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Steel Z, Silove D, Phan T, Bauman A. Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: a population-based study. Lancet. 2002;360(9339):1056–62. PubMedCrossRef Steel Z, Silove D, Phan T, Bauman A. Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: a population-based study. Lancet. 2002;360(9339):1056–62. PubMedCrossRef
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Steiner K, Johansson S‑E, Sundquist J, Wändell P. Self-reported anxiety, sleeping problems and pain among Turkish-born immigrants in Sweden. Ethn Health. 2007;12:363–79. PubMedCrossRef Steiner K, Johansson S‑E, Sundquist J, Wändell P. Self-reported anxiety, sleeping problems and pain among Turkish-born immigrants in Sweden. Ethn Health. 2007;12:363–79. PubMedCrossRef
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Sundquist K, Johansson L‑M, DeMarinis V, Johansson S‑E, Sundquist J. Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity: symptoms in a random sample of female Bosnian refugees. Eur psychiatr. 2005;20:158–64. CrossRef Sundquist K, Johansson L‑M, DeMarinis V, Johansson S‑E, Sundquist J. Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity: symptoms in a random sample of female Bosnian refugees. Eur psychiatr. 2005;20:158–64. CrossRef
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Tay AK, Rees S, Chen J, Kareth M, Silove D. The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder and complex post-traumatic stress disorder amongst West Papuan refugees. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15(1):111. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Tay AK, Rees S, Chen J, Kareth M, Silove D. The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder and complex post-traumatic stress disorder amongst West Papuan refugees. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15(1):111. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Tinghög P, Malm A, Arwidson C, Sigvardsdotter E, Lundin A, Saboonchi F. Prevalence of mental ill health, traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden after 2011: a population-based survey. BMJ Open. 2017;7(12):e18899. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Tinghög P, Malm A, Arwidson C, Sigvardsdotter E, Lundin A, Saboonchi F. Prevalence of mental ill health, traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden after 2011: a population-based survey. BMJ Open. 2017;7(12):e18899. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Turner SW, Bowie C, Dunn G, Shapo L, Yule W. Mental health of Kosovan Albanian refugees in the UK. Br J Psychiatry. 2003;182(5):444–8. PubMedCrossRef Turner SW, Bowie C, Dunn G, Shapo L, Yule W. Mental health of Kosovan Albanian refugees in the UK. Br J Psychiatry. 2003;182(5):444–8. PubMedCrossRef
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Vega WA, Sribney WM, Miskimen TM, Escobar JI, Aguilar-Gaxiola S. Putative psychotic symptoms in the Mexican American population: prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194(7):471–7. PubMedCrossRef Vega WA, Sribney WM, Miskimen TM, Escobar JI, Aguilar-Gaxiola S. Putative psychotic symptoms in the Mexican American population: prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194(7):471–7. PubMedCrossRef
110.
Zurück zum Zitat Whitley R, Wang J, Fleury M‑J, Liu A, Caron J. Mental health status, health care utilisation, and service satisfaction among immigrants in montreal: an epidemiological comparison. Can J Psychiatry. 2017;62(8):570–9. PubMedCrossRef Whitley R, Wang J, Fleury M‑J, Liu A, Caron J. Mental health status, health care utilisation, and service satisfaction among immigrants in montreal: an epidemiological comparison. Can J Psychiatry. 2017;62(8):570–9. PubMedCrossRef
112.
Zurück zum Zitat Bjelland I, Krokstad S, Mykletun A, Dahl AA, Tell GS, Tambs K. Does a higher educational level protect against anxiety and depression? The HUNT study. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(6):1334–45. PubMedCrossRef Bjelland I, Krokstad S, Mykletun A, Dahl AA, Tell GS, Tambs K. Does a higher educational level protect against anxiety and depression? The HUNT study. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(6):1334–45. PubMedCrossRef
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Andrews G, Henderson S, Hall W. Prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service utilisation. Overview of the Australian national mental health survey. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178:145–53. PubMedCrossRef Andrews G, Henderson S, Hall W. Prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service utilisation. Overview of the Australian national mental health survey. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178:145–53. PubMedCrossRef
114.
Zurück zum Zitat Silove D, Sinnerbrink I, Field A, Manicavasagar V, Steel Z. Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum-seekers: assocations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;170:351–7. PubMedCrossRef Silove D, Sinnerbrink I, Field A, Manicavasagar V, Steel Z. Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum-seekers: assocations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;170:351–7. PubMedCrossRef
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Nickerson A, Bryant RA, Steel Z, Silove D, Brooks R. The impact of fear for family on mental health in a resettled Iraqi refugee community. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(4):229–35. PubMedCrossRef Nickerson A, Bryant RA, Steel Z, Silove D, Brooks R. The impact of fear for family on mental health in a resettled Iraqi refugee community. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(4):229–35. PubMedCrossRef
116.
Zurück zum Zitat Norris AE, Aroian KJ, Nickerson DM. Premigration persecution, postmigration stressors and resources, and postmigration mental health: a study of severely traumatized U.S. Arab immigrant women. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc. 2011;17(4):283–93. discussion 294–286. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Norris AE, Aroian KJ, Nickerson DM. Premigration persecution, postmigration stressors and resources, and postmigration mental health: a study of severely traumatized U.S. Arab immigrant women. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc. 2011;17(4):283–93. discussion 294–286. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
117.
Zurück zum Zitat Fuller-Thomson E, Jayanthikumar J, Agbeyaka SK. Untangling the association between migraine, pain, and anxiety: examining migraine and generalized anxiety disorders in a Canadian population based study. Headache. 2017;57(3):375–90. PubMedCrossRef Fuller-Thomson E, Jayanthikumar J, Agbeyaka SK. Untangling the association between migraine, pain, and anxiety: examining migraine and generalized anxiety disorders in a Canadian population based study. Headache. 2017;57(3):375–90. PubMedCrossRef
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Santo EC, Vo MT, Uratsu CS, Grant RW. Patient-defined visit priorities in primary care: psychosocial versus medically-related concerns. J Am Board Fam Med. 2019;32(4):513–20. PubMedCrossRef Santo EC, Vo MT, Uratsu CS, Grant RW. Patient-defined visit priorities in primary care: psychosocial versus medically-related concerns. J Am Board Fam Med. 2019;32(4):513–20. PubMedCrossRef
121.
Zurück zum Zitat Derr AS. Mental health service use among immigrants in the United States: a systematic review. Psychiatr Serv. 2016;67(3):265–74. PubMedCrossRef Derr AS. Mental health service use among immigrants in the United States: a systematic review. Psychiatr Serv. 2016;67(3):265–74. PubMedCrossRef
122.
Zurück zum Zitat Tarsilla M. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. J Multidiscip Eval. 2010;6(14):142–8. Tarsilla M. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. J Multidiscip Eval. 2010;6(14):142–8.
123.
Zurück zum Zitat Andlin-Sobocki P, Wittchen H‑U. Cost of anxiety disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12(1):39–44. PubMedCrossRef Andlin-Sobocki P, Wittchen H‑U. Cost of anxiety disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12(1):39–44. PubMedCrossRef
124.
Zurück zum Zitat Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British association for psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28(5):403–39. PubMedCrossRef Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British association for psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28(5):403–39. PubMedCrossRef
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Bandelow B, Reitt M, Röver C, Michaelis S, Görlich Y, Wedekind D. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;30(4):183–92. PubMedCrossRef Bandelow B, Reitt M, Röver C, Michaelis S, Görlich Y, Wedekind D. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;30(4):183–92. PubMedCrossRef
126.
Zurück zum Zitat Baldwin DS, Allgulander C, Bandelow B, Ferre F, Pallanti S. An international survey of reported prescribing practice in the treatment of patients with generalised anxiety disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13(7):510–6. PubMedCrossRef Baldwin DS, Allgulander C, Bandelow B, Ferre F, Pallanti S. An international survey of reported prescribing practice in the treatment of patients with generalised anxiety disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13(7):510–6. PubMedCrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Global prevalence of anxiety and PTSD in immigrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis
verfasst von
Sohrab Amiri
Publikationsdatum
11.02.2022
Verlag
Springer Vienna
Erschienen in
neuropsychiatrie / Ausgabe 2/2022
Print ISSN: 0948-6259
Elektronische ISSN: 2194-1327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40211-022-00411-6