Liposarcoma is a common soft tissue neoplasm but its presence within the gastrointestinal system, especially the esophagus, is quite rare. It usually presents as an intraluminal or an intramural mass, with symptoms such as dysphagia and throat discomfort. Liposarcoma must be differentiated from benign tumors of the esophagus and managed appropriately.
In this report, we present the case of a 26-year-old woman who complained of dysphagia to liquids and solids and vague abdominal discomfort. The radiological modalities and endoscopic examination revealed a near-obstructing esophageal polypoid mass of 15 × 7.5 cm in size in the thoracal esophagus. A diagnosis of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma was made with morphological and immunohistochemical findings.
Esophageal liposarcomas originate from primitive mesenchymal cells and are divided into several subtypes, with well-differentiated liposarcoma being the most common subtype. Various diagnostic tests are available, such as barium swallow, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Depending on the size and location of the tumor, minimally invasive endoscopic resection or more radical surgery such as esophagectomy can be performed.
Modern radiological imaging modalities have allowed better understanding and early diagnosis of lipomatous tumors of the esophagus. Optimal management varies, but minimally invasive techniques allow easy removal of the tumor stalk. However, more radical surgery such as esophagectomy is still performed. Due to its rarity, little is known about the prognosis of esophageal liposarcoma. Patients should be followed-up closely in the long term regarding recurrence.