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Paolo Mascagni (Pisa 1755–Siena 1815) was one of the major members of the cultural and scientific community in Tuscany in the XIX century. After initial interest in geological investigations, he successfully turned his attention to medical sciences. In 1801, Mascagni was appointed as Professor of Anatomy at the University of Pisa, with additional charge of Lecturer at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence. Within his teaching activity he also designed several anatomic drawings which were employed for wax models of human organs. Such models, which are still visible in the La Specola museum in Florence, were so appreciated for their accuracy, that the curators of the Viennese Josephinum requested copies of them for teaching purposes. The current paper explores the relationship between Mascagni and the Josephinum, and aims to point out the importance of the Italian contribution to the education of the students of the Viennese Medical University.