Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the main tick-borne virus infection in Eurasia. It is prevalent across the entire continent from Japan to France and occurs in endemic foci. Expansion of prevalence in areas including northern Russia, Sweden, and Finland has been observed in recent years. Ticks are the most important vectors and may transmit the TBE virus to animals and humans. TBE can also be transmitted to humans in milk containing the virus. TBE has been implicated as a travel-acquired illness and there are isolated reports of its occurrence in countries outside the known areas of prevalence. Therefore, TBE should be included in the differential diagnosis for all central nervous system diseases inside or outside endemic areas.