The Barostim neoTM system is a novel implantable device that activates the carotid baroreflex. It decreases the sympathetic activity and inhibits the renin system, which results in reduced blood pressure and heart rate. In patients with resistant hypertension, electrically activation of the baroreflex leads to an average decrease in systolic blood pressure of 38, 36, 40 and 53 mmHg at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Additionally, cardiac remodelling with reduced left ventricular mass and posterior wall thickness has been observed in long-term studies. In a limited number of patients with heart failure, baroreflex activation therapy leads to a decrease in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and to improved quality of life and functional capacities. The implantation procedure is safe and associated with risks comparable with those of other active implantable devices. Barostim neo is currently available in several European countries.