Contrast induced acute kidney injury is one of the most frequent causes of hospital acquired acute kidney injury. The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of vitamin E or N-acetylcysteine as an adjunct to current standard therapy in the prevention of this clinical predicament. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin E or N-acetylcysteine added to standard therapy with 0.45 % saline is superior in preserving renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1–4 undergoing elective computer-assisted tomography with nonionic radiocontrast agents when compared to 0.45 % saline alone.
Prospective, randomized, single-center, double-masked, double dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial.
The patients were randomized to either vitamin E (total dose 2160 mg i.v.) or N-acetylcysteine (total dose 4800 mg p.o.) in addition to 0.45 % saline (1 mL/kg/h over 24 h) or saline alone. Serum creatinine change between baseline and 24 h after radiocontrast was the primary outcome. Contrast induced acute kidney injury was defined as a rise in serum creatinine > 25 % over the baseline value within 48 h.
Thirty patients (mean age 74.6 years; 17 females; 9 diabetics; all Caucasians; mean serum creatinine 1.35 mg/dL; mean creatinine clearance 56 mL/min) were enrolled. No patient developed contrast induced acute kidney injury. There was no significant difference in serum creatinine change between the three study arms.
Following radiocontrast administration, neither vitamin E nor N-acetylcystein in addition to saline demonstrated an additional beneficial effect on kidney function when compared to saline alone.