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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cytogenetically heterogeneous and incurable plasma cell disease with unknown etiology. It is thought that the ABO blood groups may play a role in the etiology of many diseases. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the ABO blood groups and the development of MM, clinical findings and overall survival.
In this single-center, retrospective and observational study, 198 patients with known blood types who diagnosed with MM between January 2012 and June 2020 were included.
It was shown that individuals with blood group 0 had a significantly lower risk of MM (OR = 0.575, 95% confidence interval 0.416–0.794, P = 0.001). The incidence of extramedullary lesion was significantly higher in those with 0 blood group compared to other blood groups (P = 0.000). Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with 0 blood group than those without 0 blood group (P = 0.007).
Individuals with 0 blood group had a lower risk of developing MM. It was determined that having 0 blood group is a predisposing factor for the development of extramedullary lesion in MM patients. However, it was shown that having a blood group of 0 was a very significant prognostic factor for MM patients and was associated with short OS.