Sepsis is a serious problem in intensive care units all over the world. Biomarkers could be useful to identify patients at risk. We focused especially on the performance of presepsin (sCD14-ST), compared to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and CD64, to determine its diagnostic and prognostic indications.
The study was conducted on 47 hospitalized patients after procedures, who were divided into three groups; systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), sepsis and septic shock. Expression of CD64 on neutrophils presented as CD64 index, sCD14-ST, CRP and PCT were measured in whole blood or plasma samples. All patients had standard samples like urine, respiratory tract samples etc. taken for culturing. Blood cultures were drawn to confirm bloodstream infection.
Forty (85 %) patients had SIRS with bacterial infection and seven (15 %) patients had SIRS with no infection. All infections were confirmed with blood cultures. Biomarkers were evaluated in all patients. In patients with confirmed infection the values were high. The patients with bacterial infection showed statistical significance with CD64 index (p = 0.003), CRP (p = 0.049) and sCD14-ST (p = 0.026), but not with PCT (p = 1.000). The severity of diagnosed SIRS was significant only with PCT (p < 0.001).
CD64 index, CRP and sCD14-ST served as good parameters to determine possible infection in patients that needed intensive care after major procedures. Values of PCT were the only ones to predict SIRS severity and could distinguish between sepsis and severe sepsis or septic shock.